Dec
25
2019
doh-cli, a simple DoH client

original post on LibreOps

A couple months ago, we announced a public and free DNS service, so people can have encrypted DNS in their browsers and systems. We support both DNS over HTTPS (DoH) and DNS over TLS and our DoH service has two endpoints, the default /dns-query and one for blocking trackers and ads /ads. You can visit our page for more info.

dns

What is DNS?

Domain Name Service in a nutshell is when you are asking directions to find where Wikipedia is in the internet. Your browser does not know, so it will ask your computer. Your computer will ask your internet provider and your internet provider will ask someone else till they find the correct answer. In the end, your browser will know where to go and this is how you are visiting Wikipedia.

You need to trust all the above parties, to give you the correct answer and everybody knows that you are visiting Wikipedia.

doh

What is DoH (DNS Queries over HTTPS)?

It’s the implementation of RFC 8484. This is a way for your browser to ask where to find Wikipedia, without exposing to everybody that you want to visit Wikipedia! Still you need someone to ask for directions, but now both your question and the answer are encrypted. So you have privacy.

let’s get technical

What is RFC 8484?

In the above rfc, your client (eg. browser) asks your DNS via HTTP/2 representational state transfer (REST). DoH clients and servers need to sent a application/dns-message content (question/answer) and encode both the question and the answer in a bace64url message. Usually is GET, but POST is also supported on some servers.

doh-cli

So, today, we introduce doh-cli, a simple command line DoH client, written in python. You can use doh-cli as a binary client in your system. We support a few DoH public servers to test, and of course both LibreDNS DoH endpoints

You can see the code here:

install it

It is super easy

pip install doh-cli

or if python3 is not your default python

pip3 install doh-cli

howto use it?

Just ask your favorite DoH server (default is https://doh.libredns.gr/dns-query)

eg.

doh-cli libredns.gr A

and use help to see all the options

doh-cli --help

Why default output is json?

With modern tools and with multiline output, it is best to support a serialized format so you can use doh-cli with your tools. But if you dont like it:

doh-cli --output plain libredns.gr A

You can see all the options and help, on the project’s page.

doh-cli

Tag(s): doh-cli, DoH, python
Dec
13
2019
a simple DoH/DoT using only dnsdist

In this blog post I will describe the easiest installation of a DoH/DoT VM for personal use, using dnsdist.

Next I will present a full installation example (from start) with dnsdist and PowerDNS.

Server Notes: Ubuntu 18.04
Client Notes: Archlinux

Every {{ }} is a variable you need to change.
Do NOT copy/paste without making the changes.

dohdot.png

Login to VM

and became root

$ ssh {{ VM }}
$ sudo -i

from now on, we are running commands as root.

TLDR;

dnsdist DoH/DoT

If you just need your own DoH and DoT instance, then dnsdist will forward your cleartext queries to another public DNS server with the below configuration.

cat > /etc/dnsdist/dnsdist.conf <<EOF

-- resets the list to this array
setACL("::/0")
addACL("0.0.0.0/0")

addDOHLocal('0.0.0.0', '/etc/dnsdist/fullchain.pem', '/etc/dnsdist/privkey.pem')
addTLSLocal('0.0.0.0', '/etc/dnsdist/fullchain.pem', '/etc/dnsdist/privkey.pem')

newServer({address="9.9.9.9:53"})
EOF

You will need -of course- to have your certificates before hand.
That’s It !

a DoH/DoT using dnsdist and powerdns

For people that need a more in-depth article, here are my notes on how to setup from scratch an entire VM with powerdns recursor and dnsdist.

Let’s Begin:

Enable PowerDNS Repos

Add key

curl -sL https://repo.powerdns.com/FD380FBB-pub.asc | apt-key add -
OK

Create PowerDNS source list

cat > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/powerdns.list <<EOF
deb [arch=amd64] http://repo.powerdns.com/ubuntu bionic-dnsdist-14 main
deb [arch=amd64] http://repo.powerdns.com/ubuntu bionic-rec-42 main
EOF

cat > /etc/apt/preferences.d/pdns <<EOF
Package: pdns-* dnsdist*
Pin: origin repo.powerdns.com
Pin-Priority: 600
EOF

Update System and Install packages

apt-get update
apt-get -qy install dnsdist pdns-recursor certbot

You may see errors from powerdns, like

  failed: E: Sub-process /usr/bin/dpkg returned an error code (1)

ignore them for the time being.

PowerDNS Recursor

We are going to setup our recursor first and let’s make it a little interesting.

PowerDNS Configuration

cat > /etc/powerdns/recursor.conf <<EOF
config-dir=/etc/powerdns
hint-file=/etc/powerdns/root.hints
local-address=127.0.0.1
local-port=5353
lua-dns-script=/etc/powerdns/pdns.lua
etc-hosts-file=/etc/powerdns/hosts.txt
export-etc-hosts=on
quiet=yes
setgid=pdns
setuid=pdns
EOF

chmod 0644 /etc/powerdns/recursor.conf
chown pdns:pdns /etc/powerdns/recursor.conf

Create a custom response

This will be handy for testing our dns from cli.

cat > /etc/powerdns/pdns.lua <<EOF
domainame = "test.{{ DOMAIN }}"
response  = "{{ VM_ipv4.address }}"

function nxdomain(dq)
    if dq.qname:equal(domainame) then
        dq.rcode=0 -- make it a normal answer
        dq:addAnswer(pdns.A, response)
        dq.variable = true -- disable packet cache
        return true
    end
    return false
end
EOF

chmod 0644 /etc/powerdns/pdns.lua
chown pdns:pdns /etc/powerdns/pdns.lua

AdBlock

Let’s make it more interesting, block trackers and ads.

cat > /usr/local/bin/update.stevenBlack.hosts.sh <<EOF
#!/bin/bash

# Get StevenBlack hosts
curl -sLo /tmp/hosts.txt https://raw.githubusercontent.com/StevenBlack/hosts/master/hosts

touch /etc/powerdns/hosts.txt

# Get diff
diff -q <(sort -V /etc/powerdns/hosts.txt | column -t) <(sort -V /tmp/hosts.txt | column -t)
DIFF_STATUS=$?

# Get Lines
LINES=`grep -c ^ /tmp/hosts.txt`

# Check & restart if needed
if [ "${LINES}" -gt "200" -a "${DIFF_STATUS}" != "0" ]; then
    mv -f /tmp/hosts.txt /etc/powerdns/hosts.txt
    chmod 0644 /etc/powerdns/hosts.txt
    chown pdns:pdns /etc/powerdns/hosts.txt
    systemctl restart pdns-recursor
fi

# vim: sts=2 sw=2 ts=2 et
EOF

chmod +x /usr/local/bin/update.stevenBlack.hosts.sh
/usr/local/bin/update.stevenBlack.hosts.sh

Be Careful with Copy/Paste. Check the $ dollar sign.

OpenNic Project

Is it possible to make it more interesting ?
Yes! by using OpenNIC Project, instead of the default root NS

cat > /usr/local/bin/update.root.hints.sh <<EOF
#!/bin/bash

# Get root hints
dig . NS @75.127.96.89 | egrep -v '^;|^$' > /tmp/root.hints

touch /etc/powerdns/root.hints

# Get diff
diff -q <(sort -V /etc/powerdns/root.hints | column -t) <(sort -V /tmp/root.hints | column -t)
DIFF_STATUS=$?

# Get Lines
LINES=`grep -c ^ /tmp/root.hints`

# Check & restart if needed
if [ "${LINES}" -gt "20" -a "${DIFF_STATUS}" != "0" ]; then
    mv -f /tmp/root.hints /etc/powerdns/root.hints
    chmod 0644 /etc/powerdns/root.hints
    chown pdns:pdns /etc/powerdns/root.hints
    systemctl restart pdns-recursor
fi

# vim: sts=2 sw=2 ts=2 et
EOF

chmod +x /usr/local/bin/update.root.hints.sh
/usr/local/bin/update.root.hints.sh

dnsdist

dnsdist is a DNS load balancer with enhanced features.

dnsdist configuration

cat > /etc/dnsdist/dnsdist.conf <<EOF
-- resets the list to this array
setACL("::/0")
addACL("0.0.0.0/0")

addDOHLocal('0.0.0.0', '/etc/dnsdist/fullchain.pem', '/etc/dnsdist/privkey.pem')
addTLSLocal('0.0.0.0', '/etc/dnsdist/fullchain.pem', '/etc/dnsdist/privkey.pem')

newServer({address="127.0.0.1:5353"})
EOF

Certbot

Now it is time to get a new certificate with the help of letsencrypt.

Replace {{ DOMAIN }} with your domain

We need to create the post hook first and this is why we need to copy the certificates under dnsdist folder.

cat > /usr/local/bin/certbot_post_hook.sh <<EOF
#!/bin/bash

cp -f /etc/letsencrypt/live/{{ DOMAIN }}/*pem /etc/dnsdist/
systemctl restart dnsdist.service

# vim: sts=2 sw=2 ts=2 et
EOF

chmod +x /usr/local/bin/certbot_post_hook.sh

and of course create a certbot script.

Caveat: I have the dry-run option in the below script. When you are ready, remove it.

cat > /usr/local/bin/certbot.create.sh <<EOF
#!/bin/bash

certbot --dry-run --agree-tos --standalone certonly --register-unsafely-without-email
    --pre-hook 'systemctl stop dnsdist'
    --post-hook /usr/local/bin/certbot_post_hook.sh
    -d {{ DOMAIN }} -d doh.{{ DOMAIN }} -d dot.{{ DOMAIN }}

# vim: sts=2 sw=2 ts=2 et
EOF

chmod +x /usr/local/bin/certbot.create.sh

Firewall

Now open your firewall to the below TCP Ports:

ufw allow 80/tcp
ufw allow 443/tcp
ufw allow 853/tcp
  • TCP 80 for certbot
  • TCP 443 for dnsdist (DoT) and certbot !
  • TCP 853 for dnsdist (DoH)

Let’s Encrypt

When you are ready, run the script

/usr/local/bin/certbot.create.sh

That’s it !

Client

For this blog post, my test settings are:

Domain: ipname.me
IP: 88.99.36.45

DoT - Client

From systemd 243+ there is an option to validate certificates on DoT but

systemd-resolved only validates the DNS server certificate if it is issued for the server’s IP address (a rare occurrence).

so it is best to use: opportunistic

/etc/systemd/resolved.conf 
[Resolve]
DNS=88.99.36.45
FallbackDNS=1.1.1.1
DNSSEC=no
#DNSOverTLS=yes
DNSOverTLS=opportunistic
Cache=yes
ReadEtcHosts=yes

systemctl restart systemd-resolved

Query

resolvectl query test.ipname.me 
test.ipname.me: 88.99.36.45                    -- link: eth0

-- Information acquired via protocol DNS in 1.9ms.
-- Data is authenticated: no

DoH - Client

Firefox Settings

dohdot_01.png

Firefox TRR

dohdot_02.png

dnsleak

Click on DNS leak test site to verify

dohdot_03.png

Tag(s): DoH, DoT, PowerDNS, dnsdist
Oct
15
2019
self-hosted Dns Over Https service

LibreOps & LibreDNS

LibreOps announced a new public service: LibreDNS, a new DoH/DoT (DNS over Https/DNS over TLS) free public service for people that want to bypass DNS restrictions and/or want to use TLS in their DNS queries. Firefox has already collaborated with Cloudflare for this case but I believe we can do better than using a centralized public service of a profit-company.

Personal Notes

So here are my personal notes for using LibreDNS in firefox

Firefox

Open Preferences/Options
firefox options

Enable DoH
firefox doh

TRR mode 2

Now the tricky part.

TRR mode is 2 when you enable DoH. What does this mean?

2 is when firefox is trying to use DoH but if it fails (or timeout) then firefox will go back to ask your operating system’s DNS.

DoH is a URL, so the first time firefox needs to resolve doh.libredns.gr and it will ask your operating system for that.

host file

There is way to exclude doh.libredns.gr from DoH , and use your /etc/hosts file instead your local DNS and enable TRR mode to 3, which means you will ONLY use DoH service for DNS queries.

# grep doh.libredns.gr /etc/hosts
116.203.115.192 doh.libredns.gr

TRR mode 3

and in

about:config

about:config

DNS Leak

Try DNS Leak Test to verify that your local ISP is NOT your firefox DNS

https://dnsleaktest.com/

Thunderbird

Thunderbird also supports DoH and here are my settings

about:config

PS: Do not forget, this is NOT a global change, just your firefox will ask libredns for any dns query.