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STARTTLS with CRAM-MD5 on dovecot using LDAP


I should have written this post like a decade ago, but laziness got the better of me.

I use TLS with IMAP and SMTP mail server. That means I encrypt the connection by protocol against the mail server and not by port (ssl Vs tls). Although I do not accept any authentication before STARTTLS command is being provided (that means no cleartext passwords in authentication), I was leaving the PLAIN TEXT authentication mechanism in the configuration. That’s not an actual problem unless you are already on the server and you are trying to connect on localhost but I can do better.


I use OpenLDAP as my backend authentication database. Before all, the ldap attribute password must be changed from cleartext to CRAM-MD5

Typing the doveadm command from dovecot with the password method:

# doveadm pw

Enter new password:    test
Retype new password:   test

will return the CRAM-MD5 hash of our password (test)

Then we need to edit our DN (distinguished name) with ldapvi:


userPassword: test


userPassword: {CRAM-MD5}e02d374fde0dc75a17a557039a3a5338c7743304777dccd376f332bee68d2cf6


Dovecot is not only the imap server but also the “Simple Authentication and Security Layer” aka SASL service. That means that imap & smtp are speaking with dovecot for authentication and dovecot uses ldap as the backend. To change AUTH=PLAIN to cram-md5 we need to do the below change:

file: 10-auth.conf


auth_mechanisms = plain


auth_mechanisms = cram-md5

Before restarting dovecot, we need to make one more change. This step took me a couple hours to figure it out! On our dovecot-ldap.conf.ext configuration file, we need to tell dovecot NOT to bind to ldap for authentication but let dovecot to handle the authentication process itself:


# Enable Authentication Binds
# auth_bind = yes


# Enable Authentication Binds
auth_bind = no

To guarantee that the entire connection is protected by TLS encryption, change in 10-ssl.conf the below setting:


ssl = yes


ssl = required

SSL/TLS is always required, even if non-plaintext authentication mechanisms are used. Any attempt to authenticate before SSL/TLS is enabled will cause an authentication failure.

After that, restart your dovecot instance.


# telnet imap

Trying ...
Connected to
Escape character is '^]'.

1 LOGIN test

1 NO [ALERT] Unsupported authentication mechanism.
telnet> clo

That meas no cleartext authentication is permitted


Now the hard part, the mail clients:


My default webmail client since v1.10.1.123 supports CRAM-MD5
To verify that, open your application.ini file under your data folder and search for something like that:

    imap_use_auth_plain = On
    imap_use_auth_cram_md5 = On
    smtp_use_auth_plain = On
    smtp_use_auth_cram_md5 = On

as a bonus, rainloop supports STARTTLS and authentication for imap & smtp, even when talking to





How to Clean a Coffee Grinder With Rice

This is my basic home setup for a nice cup of coffee:


You can find my posts regarding coffee here: coffee

I’ve tried to clean up my graef coffee grinder with a small cup of instant rice.
and the results are pretty good:

(click on images for more detail)



Visiting ProgressBar HackerSpace in Bratislava

When traveling, I make an effort to visit the local hackerspace. I understand that this is not normal behavior for many people, but for us (free / opensource advocates) is always a must.

This was my 4th week on Bratislava and for the first time, I had a couple free hours to visit ProgressBar HackerSpace.

For now, they are allocated in the middle of the historical city on the 2nd floor. The entrance is on a covered walkway (gallery) between two buildings. There is a bell to ring and automated (when members are already inside) the door is wide open for any visitor. No need to wait or explain why you are there!

Entering ProgressBar there is no doubt that you are entering a hackerspace.


You can view a few photos by clicking here: ProgressBar - Photos

And you can find ProgressBar on OpenStreet Map

Some cool-notable projects:

  • bitcoin vending machine
  • robot arm to fetch clubmate
  • magic wood to switch on/off lights
  • blinkwall
  • Cool T-shirts

their lab is fool with almost anything you need to play/hack with.

I was really glad to make time and visit them.

No Place To Hide


An Amazing Book!!!

Must Read !!

I’ve listened to the audiobook like in two days.
Couldnt leave it down.

Then organize a CryptoParty to your local hackerspace

Tag(s): books
Failures will occur, even with ansible and version control systems!


Every SysAdmin, DevOp, SRE, Computer Engineer or even Developer knows that failures WILL occur. So you need to plan with that constant in mind. Failure causes can be present in hardware, power, operating system, networking, memory or even bugs in software. We often call them system failures but it is possible that a Human can be also the cause of such failure!

Listening to the stories on the latest episode of stack overflow podcast felt compelled to share my own oh-shit moment in recent history.

I am writing this article so others can learn from this story, as I did in the process.

Rolling upgrades

I am a really big fun of rolling upgrades.

I am used to work with server farms. In a nutshell that means a lot of servers connected to their own switch behind routers/load balancers. This architecture gives me a great opportunity when it is time to perform operations, like scheduling service updates in working hours.

eg. Update software version 1.2.3 to 1.2.4 on serverfarm001

The procedure is really easy:

  • From the load balancers, stop any new incoming traffic to one of the servers.
  • Monitor all processes on the server and wait for them to terminate.
  • When all connections hit zero, stop the service you want to upgrade.
  • Perform the service update
  • Testing
  • Monitor logs and possible alarms
  • Be ready to rollback if necessary
  • Send some low traffic and try to test service with internal users
  • When everything is OK, tell the load balancers to send more traffic
  • Wait, monitor everything, test, be sure
  • Revert changes on the load balancers so that the specific server can take equal traffic/connection as the others.


This procedure is well established in such environments, and gives us the benefit of working with the whole team in working hours without the need of scheduling a maintenance window in the middle of the night, when low customer traffic is reaching us. During the day, if something is not going as planned, we can also reach other departments and work with them, figuring out what is happening.

Configuration Management

We are using ansible as the main configuration management tool. Every file, playbook, role, task of ansible is under a version control system, so that we can review changes before applying them to production. Viewing diffs from a modern web tool can be a lifesaver in these days.


We also use docker images or virtual images as development machines, so that we can perform any new configuration, update/upgrade on those machines and test it there.

Ansible Inventory

To perform service updates with ansible on servers, we are using the ansible inventory to host some metadata (aka variables) for every machine in a serverfarm. Let me give you an example:

server01 version=1.2.3
server02 version=1.2.3
server03 version=1.2.3
server04 version=1.2.4

And performing the update action via ansible limits


~> ansible-playbook serverfarm001.yml -t update -C -D -l server04


When something is not going as planned, we revert the changes on ansible (version control) and re-push the previous changes on a system. Remember the system is not getting any traffic from the front-end routers.

The Update

I was ready to do the update. Nagios was opened, logs were tailed -f

and then:

~> ansible-playbook serverfarm001.yml -t update

The Mistake

I run the ansible-playbook without limiting the server I wanted to run the update !!!

So all new changes passed through all servers, at once!

On top of that, new configuration broke running software with previous version. When the restart notify of service occurred every server simple stopped!!!

Funny thing, the updated machine server04 worked perfectly, but no traffic was reaching through the load balancers to this server.

Activate Rollback

It was time to run the rollback procedure.

Reverting changes from version control is easy. Took me like a moment or something.
Running again:

~> ansible-playbook serverfarm001.yml

and …

Waiting for Nagios

In 2,5 minutes I had fixed the error and I was waiting for nagios to be green again.

Then … Nothing! Red alerts everywhere!

Oh-Shit Moment

It was time for me to inform everyone what I have done.
Explaining to my colleagues and manager the mistake and trying to figuring out what went wrong with the rollback procedure.


On this crucial moment everything else worked like clockwise.

My colleagues took every action to:

  • informing helpdesk
  • looking for errors
  • tailing logs
  • monitor graphs
  • viewing nagios
  • talking to other people
  • do the leg-work in general

and leaving me in piece with calm to figure out what went wrong.

I felt so proud to be part of the team at that specific moment.

If any of you reading this article: Truly thank all guys and gals .


I bypass ansible and copied the correct configuration to all servers via ssh.
My colleagues were telling me the good news and I was going through one by one of ~xx servers.
In 20minutes everything was back in normal.
And finally nagios was green again.

Blameless Post-Mortem

It was time for post-mortem and of course drafting the company’s incident report.

We already knew what happened and how, but nevertheless we need to write everything down and try to keep a good timeline of all steps.
This is not only for reporting but also for us. We need to figure out what happened exactly, do we need more monitoring tools?
Can we place any failsafes in our procedures? Also why the rollback procedure didnt work.

Fixing Rollback

I am writing this paragraph first, but to be honest with you, it took me some time getting to the bottom of this!

Rollback procedure actually is working as planned. I did a mistake with the version control system.

What we have done is to wrap ansible under another script so that we can select the version control revision number at runtime.
This is actually pretty neat, cause it gives us the ability to run ansible with previous versions of our configuration, without reverting in master branch.

The ansible wrapper asks for revision and by default we run it with [tip].

So the correct way to do rollbacks is:


~> ansible-playbook serverfarm001.yml -rev 238

At the time of problem, I didnt do that. I thought it was better to revert all changes and re-run ansible.
But ansible was running into default mode with tip revision !!

Although I manage pretty well on panic mode, that day my brain was frozen!

Re-Design Ansible

I wrap my head around and tried to find a better solution on performing service updates. I needed to change something that can run without the need of limit in ansible.

The answer has obvious in less than five minutes later:


I need to keep a separated configuration folder and run my ansible playbooks with variable instead of absolute paths.


- copy: src=files/serverfarm001/{{version}} dest=/etc/service/configuration

That will suffice next time (and actually did!). When the service upgrade is finished, We can simple remove the previous configuration folder without changing anything else in ansible.

Ansible Groups

Another (more simplistic) approach is to create a new group in ansible inventory.
Like you do with your staging Vs production environment.


server01 version=1.2.3
server02 version=1.2.3
server03 version=1.2.3

server04 version=1.2.4

and create a new yml file

- hosts: serverfarm001_new

run the ansible-playbook against the new serverfarm001_new group .


A lot of services nowadays have syntax check commands for their configuration.

You can use this validation process in ansible!

here is an example from ansible docs:

# Update sshd configuration safely, avoid locking yourself out
- template:
    src: etc/ssh/sshd_config.j2
    dest: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    owner: root
    group: root
    mode: '0600'
    validate: /usr/sbin/sshd -t -f %s
    backup: yes

or you can use registers like this:

  - name: Check named
    shell: /usr/sbin/named-checkconf -t /var/named/chroot
    register: named_checkconf
    changed_when: "named_checkconf.rc == 0"
    notify: anycast rndc reconfig


Everyone makes mistakes. I know, I have some oh-shit moments in my career for sure. Try to learn from these failures and educate others. Keep notes and write everything down in a wiki or in whatever documentation tool you are using internally. Always keep your calm. Do not hide any errors from your team or your manager. Be the first person that informs everyone. If the working environment doesnt make you feel safe, making mistakes, perhaps you should think changing scenery. You will make a mistake, failures will occur. It is a well known fact and you have to be ready when the time is up. Do a blameless post-mortem. The only way a team can be better is via responsibility, not blame. You need to perform disaster-recovery scenarios from time to time and test your backup. And always -ALWAYS- use a proper configuration management tool for all changes on your infrastructure.

post scriptum

After writing this draft, I had a talk with some friends regarding the cloud industry and how this experience can be applied into such environment. The quick answer is you SHOULD NOT.

Working with cloud, means you are mostly using virtualization. Docker images or even Virtual Machines should be ephemeral. When it’s time to perform upgrades (system patching or software upgrades) you should be creating new virtual machines that will replace the old ones. There is no need to do it in any other way. You can rolling replacing the virtual machines (or docker images) without the need of stopping the service in a machine, do the upgrade, testing, put it back. Those ephemeral machines should not have any data or logs in the first place. Cloud means that you can (auto) scale as needed it without thinking where the data are.

thanks for reading.

Tag(s): failures, ansible
DNS Certification Authority Authorization


Reading RFC 6844 you will find the definition of “DNS Certification Authority Authorization (CAA) Resource Record”.

You can read everything here: RFC 6844

So, what is CAA anyhow?

Certificate Authority

In a nutshell you are declaring which your Certificate Authority is for your domain.

It’s another way to verify that the certificate your site is announcing is in fact signed by the issuer that the certificate is showing.

So let’s see what my certificate is showing:



Now, let’s find out what my DNS is telling us:

# dig caa 

;; ANSWER SECTION:        5938    IN  CAA 1 issue ""


You can also use the Qualys ssl server test:


Tag(s): dns, CAA, letsencrypt
postfix TLS & ipv6


smtp Vs smtpd


  • postfix/smtp
    • The SMTP daemon is for sending emails to the Internet (outgoing mail server).
  • postfix/smtpd
    • The SMTP daemon is for receiving emails from the Internet (incoming mail server).


Encryption on mail transport is what we call: opportunistic. If both parties (sender’s outgoing mail server & recipient’s incoming mail server) agree to exchange encryption keys, then a secure connection may be used. Otherwise a plain connection will be established. Plain as in non-encrypted aka cleartext over the wire.

SMTP - Outgoing Traffic

In the begging there where only three options in postfix:

  • none
  • may
  • encrypt

The default option on a Centos 6x is none:

# postconf -d | grep smtp_tls_security_level
smtp_tls_security_level =

Nowadays, postfix supports more options, like:

  • dane
  • verify
  • secure

Here is the basic setup, to enable TLS on your outgoing mail server:

smtp_tls_security_level = may
smtp_tls_loglevel = 1

From postfix v2.6 and later, can you disable weak encryption by selecting the cipher suite and protocols you prefer to use:

smtp_tls_ciphers = export
smtp_tls_protocols = !SSLv2, !SSLv3

You can also define where the file that holds all the root certificates on your linux server is, and thus to verify the certificate that provides an incoming mail server:

smtp_tls_CAfile = /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt

I dont recommend to go higher with your setup, cause (unfortunately) not everyone is using TLS on their incoming mail server!

SMTPD - Incoming Traffic

To enable TLS in your incoming mail server, you need to provide some encryption keys aka certificates!

I use letsencrypt on my server and the below notes are based on that.

Let’s Encrypt

A quick explanation on what exists on your letsencrypt folder:

# ls -1 /etc/letsencrypt/live/

privkey.pem    ===>  You Private Key
cert.pem       ===>  Your Certificate
chain.pem      ===>  Your Intermediate
fullchain.pem  ===>  Your Certificate with Your Intermediate 


Below you can find the most basic configuration setup you need for your incoming mail server.

smtpd_tls_ask_ccert = yes
smtpd_tls_security_level = may
smtpd_tls_loglevel = 1

Your mail server is asking for a certificate so that a trusted TLS connection can be established between outgoing and incoming mail server.
The servers must exchange certificates and of course, verify them!

Now, it’s time to present your own domain certificate to the world. Offering only your public certificate cert.pem isnt enough. You have to offer both your certificate and the intermediate’s certificate, so that the sender’s mail server can verify you, by checking the digital signatures on those certificates.

smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/letsencrypt/live/
smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/letsencrypt/live/

smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt
smtpd_tls_CApath = /etc/pki/tls/certs

CAfile & CApath helps postfix to verify the sender’s certificate by looking on your linux distribution file, that holds all the root certificates.

And you can also disable weak ciphers and protocols:

smtpd_tls_ciphers = high
smtpd_tls_exclude_ciphers = aNULL, MD5, EXPORT
smtpd_tls_protocols = !SSLv2, !SSLv3


Here is an example from gmail:

SMTPD - Incoming Mail from Gmail

You can see that there is a trusted TLS connection established From google:

Jun  4 11:52:07 kvm postfix/smtpd[14150]:
        connect from[2607:f8b0:4003:c06::236]
Jun  4 11:52:08 kvm postfix/smtpd[14150]:
        Trusted TLS connection established from[2607:f8b0:4003:c06::236]:
        TLSv1.2 with cipher ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 (128/128 bits)
Jun  4 11:52:09 kvm postfix/smtpd[14150]:
Jun  4 11:52:10 kvm postfix/smtpd[14150]:
        disconnect from[2607:f8b0:4003:c06::236]

SMTP - Outgoing Mail from Gmail

And this is the response To gmail :

Jun  4 12:01:32 kvm postfix/smtpd[14808]:
        initializing the server-side TLS engine
Jun  4 12:01:32 kvm postfix/smtpd[14808]:
        connect from[2a00:1838:20:1::XXXX:XXXX]
Jun  4 12:01:33 kvm postfix/smtpd[14808]:
        setting up TLS connection from[2a00:1838:20:1::XXXX:XXXX]
Jun  4 12:01:33 kvm postfix/smtpd[14808]:[2a00:1838:20:1::XXXX:XXXX]: TLS cipher list "aNULL:-aNULL:ALL:!EXPORT:!LOW:!MEDIUM:+RC4:@STRENGTH:!aNULL:!MD5:!EXPORT:!aNULL"
Jun  4 12:01:33 kvm postfix/smtpd[14808]:
        Anonymous TLS connection established from[2a00:1838:20:1::XXXX:XXXX]:
        TLSv1.2 with cipher ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 (128/128 bits)
Jun  4 12:01:35 kvm postfix/smtpd[14808]:
        disconnect from[2a00:1838:20:1::XXXX:XXXX]

As you can see -In both cases (sending/receiving)- the mail servers have established a trusted secure TLSv1.2 connection.
The preferred cipher (in both scenarios) is : ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256


Tell postfix to prefer ipv6 Vs ipv4 and use TLS if two mail servers support it !

smtp_address_preference = ipv6
Tag(s): postfix, tls, ipv6