Mar
26
2017
swapfile on centos7

Working with VPS (Virtual Private Server), sometimes means that you dont have a lot of memory.

That’s why, we use the swap partition, a system partition that our linux kernel use as extended memory. It’s slow but necessary when your system needs more memory. Even if you dont have any free partition disk, you can use a swap file to add to your linux system.

Create the Swap File


[root@centos7] # dd if=/dev/zero of=/swapfile count=1000 bs=1MiB
1000+0 records in
1000+0 records out
1048576000 bytes (1.0 GB) copied, 3.62295 s, 289 MB/s

[root@centos7] # du -sh /swapfile
1.0G    /swapfile

That is 1G file

Make Swap


[root@centos7] # mkswap -L swapfs /swapfile
Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 1048572 KiB
LABEL=swapfs, UUID=d8af8f19-5578-4c8e-b2b1-3ff57edb71f9

Permissions


[root@centos7] # chmod 0600 /swapfile

Activate


[root@centos7] # swapon /swapfile

Check

# free
              total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
Mem:        1883716     1613952       79172       54612      190592       64668
Swap:       1023996           0     1023996

fstab

Now for the final step, we need to edit /etc/fstab

/swapfile   swap    swap    defaults    0   0
Tag(s): swap, centos7
Mar
24
2017
The Phoenix Project

The Phoenix Project: A Novel About IT, DevOps, and Helping Your Business Win (2013)

An amazing book about IT and devops philosophy, you have to read it.

thephoenixproject.jpg

Feb
25
2017
Docker Swarm a native clustering system

Docker Swarm

The native Docker Container Orchestration system is Docker Swarm that in simple terms means that you can have multiple docker machines (hosts) to run your multiple docker containers (replicas). It is best to work with Docker Engine v1.12 and above as docker engine includes docker swarm natively.

Docker Swarm logo:
docker-swarm.png

In not so simply terms, docker instances (engines) running on multiple machines (nodes), communicating together (VXLAN) as a cluster (swarm).

Nodes

To begin with, we need to create our docker machines. One of the nodes must be the manager and the others will run as workers. For testing purposes I will run three (3) docker engines:

  • Manager Docker Node: myengine0
  • Worker Docker Node 1: myengine1
  • Worker Docker Node 2: myengine2

Drivers

A docker node is actually a machine that runs the docker engine in the swarm mode. The machine can be a physical, virtual, a virtualbox, a cloud instance, a VPS, a AWS etc etc

As the time of this blog post, officially docker supports natively the below drivers:

  • Amazon Web Services
  • Microsoft Azure
  • Digital Ocean
  • Exoscale
  • Google Compute Engine
  • Generic
  • Microsoft Hyper-V
  • OpenStack
  • Rackspace
  • IBM Softlayer
  • Oracle VirtualBox
  • VMware vCloud Air
  • VMware Fusion
  • VMware vSphere

QEMU - KVM

but there are unofficial drivers also.

I will use the qemu - kvm driver from this github repository: https://github.com/dhiltgen/docker-machine-kvm

The simplest way to add the kvm driver is this:


> cd /usr/local/bin/
> sudo -s
# wget -c https://github.com/dhiltgen/docker-machine-kvm/releases/download/v0.7.0/docker-machine-driver-kvm
# chmod 0750 docker-machine-driver-kvm


Docker Machines

The next thing we need to do, is to create our docker machines. Look on your distro’s repositories:

# yes | pacman -S docker-machine


Manager


$ docker-machine create -d kvm myengine0

Running pre-create checks...
Creating machine...
(myengine0) Image cache directory does not exist, creating it at /home/ebal/.docker/machine/cache...
(myengine0) No default Boot2Docker ISO found locally, downloading the latest release...
(myengine0) Latest release for github.com/boot2docker/boot2docker is v1.13.1
(myengine0) Downloading /home/ebal/.docker/machine/cache/boot2docker.iso from https://github.com/boot2docker/boot2docker/releases/download/v1.13.1/boot2docker.iso...
(myengine0) 0%....10%....20%....30%....40%....50%....60%....70%....80%....90%....100%
(myengine0) Copying /home/ebal/.docker/machine/cache/boot2docker.iso to /home/ebal/.docker/machine/machines/myengine0/boot2docker.iso...

Waiting for machine to be running, this may take a few minutes...
Detecting operating system of created instance...
Waiting for SSH to be available...
Detecting the provisioner...
Provisioning with boot2docker...
Copying certs to the local machine directory...
Copying certs to the remote machine...
Setting Docker configuration on the remote daemon...
Checking connection to Docker...
Docker is up and running!
To see how to connect your Docker Client to the Docker Engine running on this virtual machine, run: docker-machine env myengine0


Worker 1


$ docker-machine create -d kvm myengine1
Running pre-create checks...
Creating machine...
(myengine1) Copying /home/ebal/.docker/machine/cache/boot2docker.iso to /home/ebal/.docker/machine/machines/myengine1/boot2docker.iso...
Waiting for machine to be running, this may take a few minutes...
Detecting operating system of created instance...
Waiting for SSH to be available...
Detecting the provisioner...
Provisioning with boot2docker...
Copying certs to the local machine directory...
Copying certs to the remote machine...
Setting Docker configuration on the remote daemon...
Checking connection to Docker...
Docker is up and running!
To see how to connect your Docker Client to the Docker Engine running on this virtual machine, run: docker-machine env myengine1


Worker 2

$ docker-machine create -d kvm myengine2
Running pre-create checks...
Creating machine...
(myengine2) Copying /home/ebal/.docker/machine/cache/boot2docker.iso to /home/ebal/.docker/machine/machines/myengine2/boot2docker.iso...
Waiting for machine to be running, this may take a few minutes...
Detecting operating system of created instance...
Waiting for SSH to be available...
Detecting the provisioner...
Provisioning with boot2docker...
Copying certs to the local machine directory...
Copying certs to the remote machine...
Setting Docker configuration on the remote daemon...
Checking connection to Docker...
Docker is up and running!
To see how to connect your Docker Client to the Docker Engine running on this virtual machine, run: docker-machine env myengine2


List your Machines


$ docker-machine env myengine0
export DOCKER_TLS_VERIFY="1"
export DOCKER_HOST="tcp://192.168.42.126:2376"
export DOCKER_CERT_PATH="/home/ebal/.docker/machine/machines/myengine0"
export DOCKER_MACHINE_NAME="myengine0"
# Run this command to configure your shell:
# eval $(docker-machine env myengine0)

$ docker-machine ls

NAME        ACTIVE   DRIVER   STATE     URL                         SWARM   DOCKER    ERRORS
myengine0   -        kvm      Running   tcp://192.168.42.126:2376           v1.13.1
myengine1   -        kvm      Running   tcp://192.168.42.51:2376            v1.13.1
myengine2   -        kvm      Running   tcp://192.168.42.251:2376           v1.13.1


Inspect

You can get the IP of your machines with:


$ docker-machine ip myengine0
192.168.42.126

$ docker-machine ip myengine1
192.168.42.51

$ docker-machine ip myengine2
192.168.42.251

with ls as seen above or use the inspect parameter for a full list of information regarding your machines in a json format:


$ docker-machine inspect myengine0

If you have jq you can filter out some info


$ docker-machine inspect myengine0  | jq .'Driver.DiskPath'

"/home/ebal/.docker/machine/machines/myengine0/myengine0.img"


SSH

To enter inside the kvm docker machine, you can use ssh

Manager


$ docker-machine ssh myengine0 

                        ##         .
                  ## ## ##        ==
               ## ## ## ## ##    ===
           /"""""""""""""""""___/ ===
      ~~~ {~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ /  ===- ~~~
           ______ o           __/
                          __/
              ___________/
 _                 _   ____     _            _
| |__   ___   ___ | |_|___  __| | ___   ___| | _____ _ __
| '_  / _  / _ | __| __) / _` |/ _  / __| |/ / _  '__|
| |_) | (_) | (_) | |_ / __/ (_| | (_) | (__|   <  __/ |
|_.__/ ___/ ___/ __|_______,_|___/ ___|_|____|_|
Boot2Docker version 1.13.1, build HEAD : b7f6033 - Wed Feb  8 20:31:48 UTC 2017
Docker version 1.13.1, build 092cba3

Worker 1


$ docker-machine ssh myengine1 

                        ##         .
                  ## ## ##        ==
               ## ## ## ## ##    ===
           /"""""""""""""""""___/ ===
      ~~~ {~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ /  ===- ~~~
           ______ o           __/
                          __/
              ___________/
 _                 _   ____     _            _
| |__   ___   ___ | |_|___  __| | ___   ___| | _____ _ __
| '_  / _  / _ | __| __) / _` |/ _  / __| |/ / _  '__|
| |_) | (_) | (_) | |_ / __/ (_| | (_) | (__|   <  __/ |
|_.__/ ___/ ___/ __|_______,_|___/ ___|_|____|_|
Boot2Docker version 1.13.1, build HEAD : b7f6033 - Wed Feb  8 20:31:48 UTC 2017
Docker version 1.13.1, build 092cba3

Worker 2


$ docker-machine ssh myengine2

                        ##         .
                  ## ## ##        ==
               ## ## ## ## ##    ===
           /"""""""""""""""""___/ ===
      ~~~ {~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ /  ===- ~~~
           ______ o           __/
                          __/
              ___________/
 _                 _   ____     _            _
| |__   ___   ___ | |_|___  __| | ___   ___| | _____ _ __
| '_  / _  / _ | __| __) / _` |/ _  / __| |/ / _  '__|
| |_) | (_) | (_) | |_ / __/ (_| | (_) | (__|   <  __/ |
|_.__/ ___/ ___/ __|_______,_|___/ ___|_|____|_|
Boot2Docker version 1.13.1, build HEAD : b7f6033 - Wed Feb  8 20:31:48 UTC 2017
Docker version 1.13.1, build 092cba3


Swarm Cluster

Now it’s time to build a swarm of docker machines!

Initialize the manager

docker@myengine0:~$  docker swarm init --advertise-addr 192.168.42.126

Swarm initialized: current node (jwyrvepkz29ogpcx18lgs8qhx) is now a manager.

To add a worker to this swarm, run the following command:

    docker swarm join
    --token SWMTKN-1-4vpiktzp68omwayfs4c3j5mrdrsdavwnewx5834g9cp6p1koeo-bgcwtrz6srt45qdxswnneb6i9
    192.168.42.126:2377

To add a manager to this swarm, run 'docker swarm join-token manager' and follow the instructions.

Join Worker 1

docker@myengine1:~$  docker swarm join
>     --token SWMTKN-1-4vpiktzp68omwayfs4c3j5mrdrsdavwnewx5834g9cp6p1koeo-bgcwtrz6srt45qdxswnneb6i9
>     192.168.42.126:2377

This node joined a swarm as a worker.

Join Worker 2

docker@myengine2:~$   docker swarm join
>     --token SWMTKN-1-4vpiktzp68omwayfs4c3j5mrdrsdavwnewx5834g9cp6p1koeo-bgcwtrz6srt45qdxswnneb6i9
>     192.168.42.126:2377

This node joined a swarm as a worker.

From the manager


docker@myengine0:~$  docker node ls

ID                           HOSTNAME   STATUS  AVAILABILITY  MANAGER STATUS
jwyrvepkz29ogpcx18lgs8qhx *  myengine0  Ready   Active        Leader
m5akhw7j60fru2d0an4lnsgr3    myengine2  Ready   Active
sfau3r42bqbhtz1c6v9hnld67    myengine1  Ready   Active

Info

We can find more information about the docker-machines running the docker info command when you have ssh-ed the nodes:

eg. the swarm part:

manager


Swarm: active
 NodeID: jwyrvepkz29ogpcx18lgs8qhx
 Is Manager: true
 ClusterID: 8fjv5fzp0wtq9hibl7w2v65cs
 Managers: 1
 Nodes: 3
 Orchestration:
  Task History Retention Limit: 5
 Raft:
  Snapshot Interval: 10000
  Number of Old Snapshots to Retain: 0
  Heartbeat Tick: 1
  Election Tick: 3
 Dispatcher:
  Heartbeat Period: 5 seconds
 CA Configuration:
  Expiry Duration: 3 months
 Node Address: 192.168.42.126
 Manager Addresses:
  192.168.42.126:2377

worker1

Swarm: active
 NodeID: sfau3r42bqbhtz1c6v9hnld67
 Is Manager: false
 Node Address: 192.168.42.51
 Manager Addresses:
  192.168.42.126:2377

worker 2

Swarm: active
 NodeID: m5akhw7j60fru2d0an4lnsgr3
 Is Manager: false
 Node Address: 192.168.42.251
 Manager Addresses:
  192.168.42.126:2377

Services

Now it’s time to test our docker swarm by running a container service across our entire fleet!

For testing purposes we chose 6 replicas of an nginx container:


docker@myengine0:~$ docker service create --replicas 6 -p 80:80 --name web nginx

ql6iogo587ibji7e154m7npal

List images

docker@myengine0:~$  docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
nginx               <none>              db079554b4d2        9 days ago          182 MB

List of services

regarding your docker registry or your internet connection, we will see the replicas running:


docker@myengine0:~$ docker service ls
ID            NAME  MODE        REPLICAS  IMAGE
ql6iogo587ib  web   replicated  0/6       nginx:latest

docker@myengine0:~$ docker service ls
ID            NAME  MODE        REPLICAS  IMAGE
ql6iogo587ib  web   replicated  2/6       nginx:latest

docker@myengine0:~$ docker service ls
ID            NAME  MODE        REPLICAS  IMAGE
ql6iogo587ib  web   replicated  3/6       nginx:latest

docker@myengine0:~$ docker service ls
ID            NAME  MODE        REPLICAS  IMAGE
ql6iogo587ib  web   replicated  6/6       nginx:latest
docker@myengine0:~$  docker service ps web

ID            NAME   IMAGE         NODE       DESIRED STATE  CURRENT STATE           ERROR  PORTS
t3v855enecgv  web.1  nginx:latest  myengine1  Running        Running 17 minutes ago
xgwi91plvq00  web.2  nginx:latest  myengine2  Running        Running 17 minutes ago
0l6h6a0va2fy  web.3  nginx:latest  myengine0  Running        Running 16 minutes ago
qchj744k0e45  web.4  nginx:latest  myengine1  Running        Running 17 minutes ago
udimh2bokl8k  web.5  nginx:latest  myengine2  Running        Running 17 minutes ago
t50yhhtngbac  web.6  nginx:latest  myengine0  Running        Running 16 minutes ago

Browser

To verify that our replicas are running as they should:

docker-swarm-nginx.png

Scaling a service

It’s really interesting that we can scale out or scale down our replicas on the fly !

from the manager


docker@myengine0:~$  docker service ls
ID            NAME  MODE        REPLICAS  IMAGE
ql6iogo587ib  web   replicated  6/6       nginx:latest

docker@myengine0:~$ docker service ps web
ID            NAME   IMAGE         NODE       DESIRED STATE  CURRENT STATE       ERROR  PORTS
t3v855enecgv  web.1  nginx:latest  myengine1  Running        Running 3 days ago
xgwi91plvq00  web.2  nginx:latest  myengine2  Running        Running 3 days ago
0l6h6a0va2fy  web.3  nginx:latest  myengine0  Running        Running 3 days ago
qchj744k0e45  web.4  nginx:latest  myengine1  Running        Running 3 days ago
udimh2bokl8k  web.5  nginx:latest  myengine2  Running        Running 3 days ago
t50yhhtngbac  web.6  nginx:latest  myengine0  Running        Running 3 days ago


Scale Down

from the manager


$ docker service scale web=3
web scaled to 3

docker@myengine0:~$ docker service ls
ID            NAME  MODE        REPLICAS  IMAGE
ql6iogo587ib  web   replicated  3/3       nginx:latest

docker@myengine0:~$ docker service ps web
ID            NAME   IMAGE         NODE       DESIRED STATE  CURRENT STATE       ERROR  PORTS
0l6h6a0va2fy  web.3  nginx:latest  myengine0  Running        Running 3 days ago
qchj744k0e45  web.4  nginx:latest  myengine1  Running        Running 3 days ago
udimh2bokl8k  web.5  nginx:latest  myengine2  Running        Running 3 days ago


Scale Up

from the manager


docker@myengine0:~$ docker service scale web=8
web scaled to 8
docker@myengine0:~$
docker@myengine0:~$ docker service ls
ID            NAME  MODE        REPLICAS  IMAGE
ql6iogo587ib  web   replicated  3/8       nginx:latest
docker@myengine0:~$
docker@myengine0:~$ docker service ls
ID            NAME  MODE        REPLICAS  IMAGE
ql6iogo587ib  web   replicated  4/8       nginx:latest
docker@myengine0:~$
docker@myengine0:~$ docker service ls
ID            NAME  MODE        REPLICAS  IMAGE
ql6iogo587ib  web   replicated  8/8       nginx:latest
docker@myengine0:~$
docker@myengine0:~$
docker@myengine0:~$ docker service ps web
ID            NAME   IMAGE         NODE       DESIRED STATE  CURRENT STATE           ERROR  PORTS
lyhoyseg8844  web.1  nginx:latest  myengine1  Running        Running 7 seconds ago
w3j9bhcn9f6e  web.2  nginx:latest  myengine2  Running        Running 8 seconds ago
0l6h6a0va2fy  web.3  nginx:latest  myengine0  Running        Running 3 days ago
qchj744k0e45  web.4  nginx:latest  myengine1  Running        Running 3 days ago
udimh2bokl8k  web.5  nginx:latest  myengine2  Running        Running 3 days ago
vr8jhbum8tlg  web.6  nginx:latest  myengine1  Running        Running 7 seconds ago
m4jzati4ddpp  web.7  nginx:latest  myengine2  Running        Running 8 seconds ago
7jek2zvuz6fs  web.8  nginx:latest  myengine0  Running        Running 11 seconds ago


Feb
14
2017
LDAP User Authentication on CentOS 7


prerequisites

You need to already have a LDAP instance in your infrastructure that you can reach from your test linux machine. Your ldap has an organization unit for people and one for groups.


Ldap server conf

It is always a good thing to write your notes/settings beforehand:

Ldap Server: myldapserver.example.org
Domain Component: dc=example,dc=org

People base: ou=people,dc=example,dc=org
Group base: ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=org

bind user: userpam
bind pass: 1234567890


Installation

On your centos 7 machine, you have to install two packages:


# yum -y install nss-pam-ldapd

  Installing : nscd-2.17-157.el7_3.1.x86_64
  Installing : nss-pam-ldapd-0.8.13-8.el7.x86_64


local LDAP name service daemon

Edit the /etc/nslcd.conf file accordingly to your ldap setup.


# grep -Ev '#|^$' /etc/nslcd.conf
uid nslcd
gid ldap

uri ldap://myldapserver.example.org
base ou=people,dc=example,dc=org

ssl no
tls_cacertdir /etc/openldap/cacerts

This is the most basic configuration file, without any TLS (encryption) support, but for our test purposes is ok.


restart nslcd

Every time you change something to nslcd.conf file, you need to restart the service:

# systemctl restart nslcd


Name Service Switch

By default the Name Service Switch have ldap support for the below pam services:


# grep ldap /etc/nsswitch.conf

passwd:     files sss ldap
shadow:     files sss ldap
group:      files sss ldap
netgroup:   files sss ldap
automount:  files ldap

if not, just add it yourself. Just remember that the order is from left to right, that means your centos machine will first try to look in your local files, then to your System Security Services Daemon and finally to your ldap URI !


Testing

In this first step, the only way to test that your linux machine can talk to your linux server is via getent looking up on the passwd service:


# getent passwd | grep ebal

ebal:x:374:374:Evaggelos Balaskas:/home/ebal:/bin/bash


Ldap Bind Password

The above example is for anonymous bind against your ldap server. That means that secrets (as the password of the user) can not be viewed (actually tested it on the encrypted hash) as for that you need to bind to your ldap server with your credentials.


# egrep -v '^$|#' /etc/nslcd.conf

uid nslcd
gid ldap
uri ldap://myldapserver.example.org
base ou=people,dc=example,dc=org

binddn cn=userpam,dc=example,dc=org
bindpw 1234567890

ssl no
tls_cacertdir /etc/openldap/cacerts


restart nslcd


 # systemctl restart nslcd


Testing

Now it’s time for your first ssh login:

~> ssh testvm
ebal@testvm's password: 

Last login: Mon Feb 13 22:50:12 2017
/usr/bin/id: cannot find name for group ID 374

~>  id
uid=374(ebal) gid=374 groups=374

You can login without problem, but there is a warning for your group id.


Ldap Group Configuration

So, we need to add support for our group base on the nslcd configuration file:


# egrep -v '^$|#' /etc/nslcd.conf

uid nslcd
gid ldap
uri ldap://myldapserver.example.org
base ou=people,dc=example,dc=org
binddn cn=userpam,dc=example,dc=org
bindpw 1234567890

base group ou=Groups,dc=example,dc=org

ssl no
tls_cacertdir /etc/openldap/cacerts


restart nslcd

# systemctl restart nslcd


testing

We first test it against getent using the group service:

# getent group | grep 374
ebal:*:374

and after that, we can ssh again to our linux machine:

~> ssh testvm
ebal@testvm's password:
Last login: Mon Feb 13 23:14:42 2017 from testserver

~> id
uid=374(ebal) gid=374(ebal) groups=374(ebal)


Now it shows the group name without a problem.

Feb
09
2017
free-as-in-freedom Google Apps on Fairphone Android

Fairphone FP1U

I have this phone for more than 3,5 years


fp1u.jpg


running on Android v4.2 !


Gapps

I dont have them, I dont even have a google account.

Although fairphone comes with an extra GApps package zip, I haven’t installed them either.


Fake GApps

Unfortunately there are some android apps that need GApps to run. So, without any further ado, here are my notes on how to add support for alternative open sources.


Disclaimer

Device may brick ! Do a full backup and keep it somewhere safe.


Location Service

We start with the easy one, how to add support for location service.

In Fdroid we can find the UnifiedNlp suite of packages that work as a Location provider middleware. On my device, I installed the below apps:


https://f-droid.org/repository/browse/?fdfilter=UnifiedNlp

unified.png



UnifiedNlp

Screenshots from my fairphone, after a few reboots

unified01.png
unified02.png
unified03.png
unified04.png


Unified github

Just to make things perfectly clear, you can verify fdroid’s packages against these:

Unified

https://github.com/microg/android_packages_apps_UnifiedNlp/releases

unified05.png


Google Play Store

So notes are referring to Phonesky … I didnt follow them !!!



Instead of phonesky, I installed BlankStore !

Here is the github repo: BlankStore v0.7.5

https://github.com/mar-v-in/BlankStore/releases

blankstore.png


microG

Now are going to a more interesting part. We need to install the μG to our phone.

microG F-Droid repo

It’s really easy, just add the fdroid repository and install the below two apps:

https://microg.org/fdroid/repo?fingerprint=9BD06727E62796C0130EB6DAB39B73157451582CBD138E86C468ACC395D14165
  • microG Services Core
  • microG Services Framework Proxy

microg01.png

microG Services Core

Now the difficult part.

Opening microG self-checked, we are going to see that spoof signature is not passing the test.

Xposed

Now the most difficult and dangerous thing you will need to do with your phone.


We need to install Xposed Installer

For Fairphone FP1U we need:

Package:  de.robv.android.xposed.installer
Version name:  2.7 experimental
Download: de.robv.android.xposed.installer_v33_36570c.apk (770.28 KB)
MD5: 36570c6fac687ffe08107e6a72bd3da7

after that, we have to install the below xposed modules:

  • Xposed Installer
  • FakeGApps
  • XposedGmsCoreUnifiedNlp
  • XposedUnifiedNlp

download them and reboot your phone. If you think it may be helpful, cross your fingers.


This is a good time to remind you that you need to have a fresh backup

xposed.png


microG

Now let’s reboot our mobile phone again and try to open μG once more:

microg02.png

microg03.png


If everything seems like the above pictures, then you are done !

Errata 20170211

For android users with v4.2 on it, there are a few errata!

Location Services

You need the legacy network location package from UnifiedNlp

LegacyNetworkLocation.apk

μG - microG

The latest online version -somehow- doesnt work with my phone perfectly.
You can use the build from BRNmod an alternative CyanogenMod

https://files.brnmod.rocks/apps/GmsCore/Latest/

play-services-core-debug.apk                       27-Jan-2017 11:22             4188872
Feb
08
2017
upgrading baikal - contact calendar server

Baikal

Almost a year ago, I wrote an article on how to install & use your personal Contact and Calendar Server & Android Client: Baïkal - CalDAV & CardDAV server

So, here are my personal notes on upgrading to it’s latest version (v0.4.6):

Github - Version

Here are the latest releases of baikal: Baikal Releases

Download

move to your baikal installation folder and download the latest version:

~> wget -c https://github.com/fruux/Baikal/releases/download/0.4.6/baikal-0.4.6.zip

Backup

Before doing anything else, keep a local backup of your previous installation:

~> tar cvf baikal.2016-03-26.tar baikal

Uncompress - Upgrade

To upgrade baikal is really, really easy.
You just need to uncompress the above dot zip file:

With -l you can see/list the files without uncompress them to your folder:

~> unzip -l baikal-0.4.6.zip | head
Archive:  baikal-0.4.6.zip
  Length      Date    Time    Name
---------  ---------- -----   ----
        0  08-19-2016 16:09   baikal/
        0  08-19-2016 16:09   baikal/Specific/
        0  08-19-2016 16:09   baikal/Specific/db/
        0  08-19-2016 16:09   baikal/Specific/db/.empty
        0  08-19-2016 15:50   baikal/html/
        0  08-19-2016 15:50   baikal/html/res/
        0  02-04-2016 09:15   baikal/html/res/core/

ok, we are sure:


~> unzip baikal-0.4.6.zip

Ownership

Change the ownership to your web browser user:

~> chown -R apache:apache baikal

Admin

Now you just need to open the admin interface to finish up the upgrade:

https://baikal.example.com/html/admin/

baikal_upgrade.png

Tag(s): baikal, caldav, cardav
Jan
29
2017
PHP Recursive Directory File Listing


Iterators

In recent versions of PHP, there is an iterator that you can use for recursively go through a directory. The name of this iterator is RecursiveDirectoryIterator and below is a simple test use:


  1 <?php
  2
  3     $Contentpath = realpath('/tmp/');
  4     $Directory = new RecursiveDirectoryIterator($Contentpath);
  5     $Iterator  = new RecursiveIteratorIterator($Directory);
  6
  7     foreach($Iterator as $name => $object){
  8         echo "$name\n";
  9     }
 10
 11 ?>

the result is something like this:


# php test.php
/tmp/.
/tmp/..
/tmp/sess_td0p1cuohquk966fkit13fhi36
/tmp/sess_et3360aidupdnnifct0te2kr31
/tmp/sess_44rrgbn1em051u64bm49c6pmd2
/tmp/sess_42f9e0mhps120a72kco9nsbn81
/tmp/fresh.log
/tmp/.ICE-unix/.
/tmp/.ICE-unix/..


Filter

One of the benefits of this iterator, is that you can extend the RecursiveFilterIterator class to filter out unwanted values. Here is an example of the extend:


<?php
    $Contentpath = realpath('./');
    $Directory = new RecursiveDirectoryIterator($Contentpath);

    class MyRecursiveFilterIterator extends RecursiveFilterIterator {
        public function accept() {
            return $this->current()->getFilename();
        }
    }   

    $MyFilter  = new MyRecursiveFilterIterator($Directory);
    $Iterator  = new RecursiveIteratorIterator($MyFilter);

    foreach($Iterator as $name => $object){
        echo "$name\n";
    }

?>

at the above example, we did not exclude or filter anything.
But our RecursiveIteratorIterator is now passing through our MyRecursiveFilterIterator !


TXT

Let’s filter out everything, but text files.


  1 <?php
  2     $Contentpath = realpath('./');
  3     $Directory = new RecursiveDirectoryIterator($Contentpath);
  4
  5     class MyRecursiveFilterIterator extends RecursiveFilterIterator {
  6         public function accept() {
  7             $file_parts = pathinfo($this->current()->getFilename());
  8
  9             if ( $file_parts['extension'] == 'txt' ) {
 10                 return $this->current()->getFilename();
 11             }
 12
 13         }
 14     }
 15
 16     $MyFilter = new MyRecursiveFilterIterator($Directory);
 17     $Iterator = new RecursiveIteratorIterator($MyFilter);
 18
 19     foreach($Iterator as $name => $object){
 20         echo "$name\n";
 21     }
 22 ?>

There is a little caveat on the above example !

Seems that the above piece of code is working just fine for a specific directory, but when you are running it against a recursive directory, you are going to have errors like the below one:


PHP Notice:  Undefined index: extension

and that’s why pathinfo will also run against directories !!!


Directories

So, we need to exclude - filter out all the directories:


  1 <?php
  2     $Contentpath = realpath('./');
  3     $Directory = new RecursiveDirectoryIterator($Contentpath);
  4
  5     class MyRecursiveFilterIterator extends RecursiveFilterIterator {
  6         public function accept() {
  7
  8             if ( $this->current()->isDir() )
  9                 return true;
 10
 11              $file_parts = pathinfo($this->current()->getFilename());
 12
 13             if ( $file_parts['extension'] == 'txt' ) {
 14                 return $this->current()->getFilename();
 15             }
 16
 17         }
 18     }
 19
 20     $MyFilter = new MyRecursiveFilterIterator($Directory);
 21     $Iterator = new RecursiveIteratorIterator($MyFilter);
 22
 23     foreach($Iterator as $name => $object){
 24         echo "$name\n";
 25     }
 26 ?>

pretty close.


Dots

Pretty close indeed, but we are not excluding the DOT directories:


.
..


FilesystemIterator

From the FilesystemIterator class we learn that there is a flag that does that:

const integer SKIP_DOTS = 4096 ;

and you can use it on RecursiveDirectoryIterator as the recursive directory iterator is actually an extend of FilesystemIterator

 RecursiveDirectoryIterator extends FilesystemIterator implements SeekableIterator , RecursiveIterator 

so our code is transforming to this one:


  1 <?php
  2     $Contentpath = realpath('./');
  3     $Directory = new RecursiveDirectoryIterator($Contentpath,RecursiveDirectoryIterator::SKIP_DOTS);
  4
  5     class MyRecursiveFilterIterator extends RecursiveFilterIterator {
  6         public function accept() {
  7
  8             if ( $this->current()->isDir() )
  9                 return true;
 10
 11             $file_parts = pathinfo($this->current()->getFilename());
 12
 13             if ( $file_parts['extension'] == 'txt' ) {
 14                 return $this->current()->getFilename();
 15             }
 16
 17         }
 18     }
 19
 20     $MyFilter = new MyRecursiveFilterIterator($Directory);
 21     $Iterator = new RecursiveIteratorIterator($MyFilter);
 22
 23     foreach($Iterator as $name => $object){
 24         echo "$name\n";
 25     }
 26 ?>


That’s It !

Jan
25
2017
ffmpeg video from images

ffmpeg is an amazing piece of software.

Today I had to create a small video of a few Print-Screens (Screenshots) and this is how I did it:

I’ve renamed all my screenshot png files from a datetime format in their names, into a numeric order.


Screenshot_2017-01-25_13-16-31.png  ---> Screenshot_01.png
Screenshot_2017-01-25_13-17-12.png  ---> Screenshot_02.png
...

after that everything was really easy:


~> ffmpeg -i Screenshot_%2d.png output.mp4

Be careful not to use * wildcard but %2d (two digits) for ffmpeg to iterate through all images.

If your images are something like: 001.png then use %3d (three digits) in your ffmpeg command.

The above command will show us 25 frames per seconds, so …. if you have less than 25 images, you will have a full second to see the entire video!!!

Delay

Now it’s time to add a duration delay:


~> ffmpeg -framerate 1/2 -i Screenshot_%2d.png -r 21 output.mp4

that means, convert 21 images with a 2 second delay into output.mp4 video

Tag(s): ffmpeg, mp4, png
Jan
10
2017
Tools I use daily

post inspired from:

https://kushaldas.in/posts/tools-i-use-daily.html
https://www.scrye.com/wordpress/nirik/2017/01/05/tools-i-use-daily/

 

Operating System

I use Archlinux as my primary Operating System. I am currently running Archlinux (since 2009) in all my boxes (laptop/workpc/homepc/odroid-c1). In the data center, I have CentOS on the bare-metal, and CentOS in the VM(s). A windows VM exists for work purposes on my workpc.

 

Desktop

The last few years I am running fluxbox but I used to work on xfce. Thunar (xfce-file browser) is my first and only choice and lilyterm as my terminal emulator. tmux as my multiplexer. I used to run gnu screen for a decade !

I use arand for desktop layout (sharing my screen to external monitor or the TV).

 

Disk / FileSystem

All my disks are encrypted and I use both ext4 and btrfs on my systems. I really like btrfs (subvolumes) and I use the raid-0 and raid-1 but no raid-5 or raid-6 yet. I also have LVM on my laptop as I can not change the ssd easy.

 

Mail

Mostly Thunderbird but I still use mutt when using a terminal or an ssh session.

 

Editor + IDE

Vim 99% of my time.

for short-time notes: mousepad and when feeling to use a GUI, I use geany.

 

Browser

Multiple Instances of firefox, chromium, firefox - Nightly, Tor Browser and vimprobable2. I used to run midori but I’ve dropped it. I also have multiple profiles on firefox !!! I keep private-mode or incognito, all of them via a socks proxy (even Tor-Browser) with remote DNS (when possible).

 

IRC

Nope

but when needed, smuxi or pidgin

 

Blog / Website

flatpress no database, static pages but dynamic framework written in PHP. Some custom code on it but I keep a separated (off-the-web) clone with my custom changes. Recently added Markdown support and some JavaScript for code highlighting etc.

I dont tend to write a lot, but I keep personal notes on drafts (unpublished). I also keep a (wackowiki) wiki as a personal online keeping-notes wiki on my domain.

 

Version Control

Mostly mercurial but also git . I have a personal hg server (via ssh) for my code, files, notes, etc etc

 

Media

VLC only. For media and podcasts and mirage or feh for image display. gimp for image manipulation

 

Misc

Coffee

I wake up, I make my double espresso at home and drink it on commuting to work. The 20min distance gives coffee enough time to wake my brain. When at work, I mostly rant for everything.

and alcohol when needed ;)

 

PS:

My fluxbox menu has less than 15 apps, I’ve put there only my daily-use programs and I try to keep distractions on my desktop as minimum as possible. I keep disable notifications to apps and I mostly work on full screen to minimize input from running apps.

Tag(s): tools
Dec
22
2016
Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana or ELK Crash Course 101

Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana or ELK Crash Course 101

Prologue aka Disclaimer

This blog post is the outcome of a Hackerspace Event:: Logstash Intro Course that happened a few days ago. I prefer doing workshops Vs presentations -as I pray to the Live-Coding Gods- and this is the actual workshop in bulletin notes.

Objectives

For our technical goal we will use my fail2ban !
We will figure (together) whom I ban with my fail2ban!!!

The results we want to present are:

Date IP Country

To help you with this inquiry, we will use this dataset: fail2ban.gz

If you read though this log you will see that it’s a grep from my messages logs.
So in the begging we have messages from compressed files … and in the end we have messages from uncompressed files.

But … Let’s begin with our journey !!

Prerequisite

For our little experiment we need Java

I Know, I know … not the beverage - the programming language !!

try java 1.7.x


# java -version
java version "1.7.0_111"
OpenJDK Runtime Environment (IcedTea 2.6.7) (Arch Linux build 7.u111_2.6.7-1-x86_64)
OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 24.111-b01, mixed mode)

In my archlinux machine:

# yes | pacman -S jdk7-openjdk

Versions

As, October 26, 2016 all versions (logstash,elastic,kibana) are all in version 5.0.x and latests.
But we will try the well-known installed previous versions !!!

as from 5.0.x and later …. we have: Breaking changes and you will need Java 8

Download

Let’s download software


# wget -c https://download.elastic.co/logstash/logstash/logstash-2.4.1.zip

# wget -c https://download.elastic.co/elasticsearch/elasticsearch/elasticsearch-2.4.1.zip

# wget -c https://download.elastic.co/kibana/kibana/kibana-4.6.3-linux-x86_64.tar.gz

Logstash

Uncompress and test that logstash can run without a problem:


# unzip logstash-2.4.1.zip
# cd logstash-2.4.1

# logstash-2.4.1/
# ./bin/logstash --version
logstash 2.4.1

# ./bin/logstash --help

Basic Logstash Example

Reminder: Ctrl+c breaks the logstash


# ./bin/logstash -e 'input { stdin { } } output { stdout {} }'

We are now ready to type ‘Whatever’ and see what happens:


# ./bin/logstash -e 'input { stdin { } } output { stdout {} }'
Settings: Default pipeline workers: 4
Pipeline main started

whatever


2016-11-15T19:18:09.638Z myhomepc whatever

Ctrl + c
Ctrl + c

^CSIGINT received. Shutting down the agent. {:level=>:warn}
stopping pipeline {:id=>"main"}
Received shutdown signal, but pipeline is still waiting for in-flight events
to be processed. Sending another ^C will force quit Logstash, but this may cause
data loss. {:level=>:warn}
^CSIGINT received. Terminating immediately.. {:level=>:fatal}

Standard Input and Standard Output

In this first example the input is our standard input, that means keyboard
and standard output means our display.

We typed:

whatever

and logstash reports:

2016-11-15T19:18:09.638Z myhomepc whatever

There are three (3) fields:

  1. timestamp : 2016-11-15T19:18:09.638Z
  2. hostname : myhomepc
  3. message : whatever

Logstash Architecture

logstash.png

Logstash architecture reminds me Von Neumann .

Input --> Process --> Output 

In Process we have filter plugins and in input pluggins & output plugins we have codec plugins

Codec plugins

We can define the data representation (logs or events) via codec plugins. Most basic codec plugin is: rubydebug

rubydebug

eg. logstash -e ‘input { stdin { } } output { stdout { codec => rubydebug} }’


# ./bin/logstash -e 'input { stdin { } } output { stdout { codec => rubydebug} }'
Settings: Default pipeline workers: 4
Pipeline main started

whatever

{
       "message" => "whatever",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T19:40:46.070Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc"
}

^CSIGINT received. Shutting down the agent. {:level=>:warn}
stopping pipeline {:id=>"main"}
^CSIGINT received. Terminating immediately.. {:level=>:fatal}

json

Let’s try the json codec plugin, but now we will try it via a linux pipe:


# echo whatever | ./bin/logstash -e 'input { stdin { } } output { stdout { codec => json }  }' 

Settings: Default pipeline workers: 4
Pipeline main started

{"message":"whatever","@version":"1","@timestamp":"2016-11-15T19:48:44.127Z","host":"myhomepc"}

Pipeline main has been shutdown
stopping pipeline {:id=>"main"}

json_lines


# echo -e 'whatever1nwhatever2nn' | ./bin/logstash -e 'input { stdin { } } output { stdout { codec => json_lines }  }'

Settings: Default pipeline workers: 4
Pipeline main started

{"message":"whatever1","@version":"1","@timestamp":"2016-11-15T19:50:12.311Z","host":"myhomepc"}
{"message":"whatever2","@version":"1","@timestamp":"2016-11-15T19:50:12.324Z","host":"myhomepc"}

Pipeline main has been shutdown
stopping pipeline {:id=>"main"}

List of codec

Here is the basic list of codec:

avro
cef
compress_spooler
cloudtrail
cloudfront
collectd
dots
edn_lines
edn
es_bulk
fluent
gzip_lines
graphite
json_lines
json
line
msgpack
multiline
netflow
nmap
oldlogstashjson
plain
rubydebug
s3_plain

Configuration File

It is now very efficient to run everything from the command line, so we will try to move to a configuration file:

logstash.conf


input {
    stdin { }
} 

output {
    stdout {
        codec => rubydebug
    }
}

and run the above example once more:


# echo -e 'whatever1nwhatever2' | ./bin/logstash -f logstash.conf 

Settings: Default pipeline workers: 4
Pipeline main started

{
       "message" => "whatever1",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T19:59:51.146Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc"
}
{
       "message" => "whatever2",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T19:59:51.295Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc"
}

Pipeline main has been shutdown
stopping pipeline {:id=>"main"}

Config Test

Every time you need to test your configuration file for syntax check:


./bin/logstash --configtest

Configuration OK

fail2ban - logstash 1st try

Now it’s time to test our fail2ban file against our logstash setup. To avoid the terror of 22k lines, we will test the first 10 lines to see how it works:

# head ../fail2ban | ./bin/logstash -f logstash.conf

Settings: Default pipeline workers: 4
Pipeline main started

{
       "message" => "messages-20160918.gz:Sep 11 09:13:13 myhostname fail2ban.actions[1510]: NOTICE [apache-badbots] Unban 93.175.200.191",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T20:10:40.784Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc"
}
{
       "message" => "messages-20160918.gz:Sep 11 09:51:08 myhostname fail2ban.actions[1510]: NOTICE [apache-badbots] Unban 186.125.190.156",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T20:10:40.966Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc"
}
{
       "message" => "messages-20160918.gz:Sep 11 11:51:24 myhostname fail2ban.filter[1510]: INFO [apache-badbots] Found 37.49.225.180",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T20:10:40.967Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc"
}
{
       "message" => "messages-20160918.gz:Sep 11 11:51:24 myhostname fail2ban.actions[1510]: NOTICE [apache-badbots] Ban 37.49.225.180",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T20:10:40.968Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc"
}
{
       "message" => "messages-20160918.gz:Sep 11 14:58:35 myhostname fail2ban.filter[1510]: INFO [postfix-sasl] Found 185.40.4.126",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T20:10:40.968Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc"
}
{
       "message" => "messages-20160918.gz:Sep 11 14:58:36 myhostname fail2ban.actions[1510]: NOTICE [postfix-sasl] Ban 185.40.4.126",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T20:10:40.969Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc"
}
{
       "message" => "messages-20160918.gz:Sep 11 15:03:08 myhostname fail2ban.filter[1510]: INFO [apache-fakegooglebot] Ignore 66.249.69.88 by command",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T20:10:40.970Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc"
}
{
       "message" => "messages-20160918.gz:Sep 11 15:03:08 myhostname fail2ban.filter[1510]: INFO [apache-fakegooglebot] Ignore 66.249.76.55 by command",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T20:10:40.970Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc"
}
{
       "message" => "messages-20160918.gz:Sep 11 15:26:04 myhostname fail2ban.filter[1510]: INFO [apache-fakegooglebot] Ignore 66.249.76.53 by command",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T20:10:40.971Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc"
}
{
       "message" => "messages-20160918.gz:Sep 11 17:01:02 myhostname fail2ban.filter[1510]: INFO [apache-badbots] Found 93.175.200.191",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T20:10:40.971Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc"
}

Pipeline main has been shutdown
stopping pipeline {:id=>"main"}

fail2ban - filter

As we said in the begging of our journey, we want to check what IPs I Ban with fail2ban !!
So we need to filter the messages. Reading through our dataset, we will soon find out that we need lines like:

"messages-20160918.gz:Sep 11 11:51:24 myhostname fail2ban.actions[1510]: NOTICE [apache-badbots] Ban 37.49.225.180"

so we could use an if-statement (conditional statements).

fail2ban - Conditionals


You can use the following comparison operators:

    equality: ==, !=, <, >, <=, >=
    regexp: =~, !~ (checks a pattern on the right against a string value on the left)
    inclusion: in, not in 

The supported boolean operators are:

    and, or, nand, xor 

The supported unary operators are:

    ! 

Expressions can be long and complex.

fail2ban - message filter

With the above knowledge, our logstash configuration file can now be:

logstash.conf


input {
    stdin { }
}

filter {
    if [message]  !~ ' Ban ' {
        drop { }
    }
}

output {
    stdout {
        codec => rubydebug
    }
}

and the results:

# head ../fail2ban | ./bin/logstash -f logstash.conf -v

{
       "message" => "messages-20160918.gz:Sep 11 11:51:24 myhostname fail2ban.actions[1510]: NOTICE [apache-badbots] Ban 37.49.225.180",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T20:33:39.858Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc"
}
{
       "message" => "messages-20160918.gz:Sep 11 14:58:36 myhostname fail2ban.actions[1510]: NOTICE [postfix-sasl] Ban 185.40.4.126",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T20:33:39.859Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc"
}

but we are pretty far away from our goal.

The above approach is just fine for our example, but it is far away from perfect or even elegant !
And here is way: the regular expression ‘ Ban ‘ is just that, a regular expression.

The most elegant approach is to match the entire message and drop everything else. Then we could be most certain sure about the output of the logs.

grok

And here comes grok !!!

and to do that we must learn the grok:

Parses unstructured event data into fields

that would be extremely useful. Remember, we have a goal!
We dont need everything, we need the date, ip & country !!

Grok Patterns

grok work with patterns, that follows the below generic rule:


 %{SYNTAX:SEMANTIC}

You can use the online grok debugger: grok heroku
to test your messages/logs/events against grok patterns

If you click on the left grok-patterns you will see the most common grok patterns.

In our setup:


# find . -type d -name patterns
./vendor/bundle/jruby/1.9/gems/logstash-patterns-core-2.0.5/lib/logstash/patterns
./vendor/bundle/jruby/1.9/gems/logstash-patterns-core-2.0.5/patterns

the latest directory is where our logstansh instance keeps the default grok patterns.

To avoid the suspense … here is the full grok pattern:

messages%{DATA}:%{SYSLOGTIMESTAMP} %{HOSTNAME} %{SYSLOGPROG}: %{LOGLEVEL} [%{PROG}] Ban %{IPV4}

grok - match

If you run this new setup, we will see something peculiar:

logstash.conf

input {
    stdin { }
} 

filter {

#    if [message]  !~ ' Ban ' {
#        drop { }
#    }

    grok {
        match => {
            "message" => "messages%{DATA}:%{SYSLOGTIMESTAMP} %{HOSTNAME} %{SYSLOGPROG}: %{LOGLEVEL} [%{PROG}] Ban %{IPV4}"
        }
    }
}

output {
    stdout {
        codec => rubydebug
    }
}

We will get messages like these:


{
       "message" => "messages:Nov 15 17:49:09 myhostname fail2ban.actions[1585]: NOTICE [apache-fakegooglebot] Ban 66.249.76.67",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T21:30:29.345Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc",
       "program" => "fail2ban.actions",
           "pid" => "1585"
}
{
       "message" => "messages:Nov 15 17:49:31 myhostname fail2ban.action[1585]: ERROR /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/ignorecommands/apache-fakegooglebot 66.249.76.104 -- stdout: ''",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T21:30:29.346Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc",
          "tags" => [
        [0] "_grokparsefailure"
    ]
}

It match some of them and the all the rest are tagged with grokparsefailure

We can remove them easily:

logstash.conf

input {
    stdin { }
} 

filter {

#    if [message]  !~ ' Ban ' {
#        drop { }
#    }

    grok {
        match => {
            "message" => "messages%{DATA}:%{SYSLOGTIMESTAMP} %{HOSTNAME} %{SYSLOGPROG}: %{LOGLEVEL} [%{PROG}] Ban %{IPV4}"
        }
    }

    if "_grokparsefailure" in [tags] {
        drop { }
    }
}

output {
    stdout {
        codec => rubydebug
    }
}

Using colon (:) character on SYNTAX grok pattern is a new field for grok / logstash.
So we can change a little bit the above grok pattern to this:

messages%{DATA}:%{SYSLOGTIMESTAMP} %{HOSTNAME} %{PROG}(?:[%{POSINT}])?: %{LOGLEVEL} [%{PROG}] Ban %{IPV4}

but then again, we want to filter some fields, like the date and IP, so

messages%{DATA}:%{SYSLOGTIMESTAMP:date} %{HOSTNAME} %{PROG}(?:[%{POSINT}])?: %{LOGLEVEL} [%{PROG}] Ban %{IPV4:ip}

logstash.conf

input {
    stdin { }
} 

filter {

#    if [message]  !~ ' Ban ' {
#        drop { }
#    }

    grok {
        match => {
            "message" => "messages%{DATA}:%{SYSLOGTIMESTAMP:date} %{HOSTNAME} %{PROG}(?:[%{POSINT}])?: %{LOGLEVEL} [%{PROG}] Ban %{IPV4:ip}"
        }
    }

    if "_grokparsefailure" in [tags] {
        drop { }
    }
}

output {
    stdout {
        codec => rubydebug
    }
}

output will be like this:

       "message" => "messages:Nov 15 17:49:32 myhostname fail2ban.actions[1585]: NOTICE [apache-fakegooglebot] Ban 66.249.76.104",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T21:42:21.260Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc",
          "date" => "Nov 15 17:49:32",
            "ip" => "66.249.76.104"
}

grok - custom pattern

If we want to match something specific with to a custom grok pattern, we can simple add one!

For example, we want to match Ban and Unban action:

# vim ./vendor/bundle/jruby/1.9/gems/logstash-patterns-core-2.0.5/patterns/ebal
ACTION (Ban|Unban)

and then our grok matching line will transform to :

logstash.conf


input {
    stdin { }
}

filter {

#    if [message]  !~ ' Ban ' {
#        drop { }
#    }

    grok {
        match => {
#            "message" => "messages%{DATA}:%{SYSLOGTIMESTAMP:date} %{HOSTNAME} %{PROG}(?:[%{POSINT}])?: %{LOGLEVEL} [%{PROG}] Ban %{IPV4:ip}"
            "message" => "messages%{DATA}:%{SYSLOGTIMESTAMP:date} %{HOSTNAME} %{PROG}(?:[%{POSINT}])?: %{LOGLEVEL} [%{PROG}] %{ACTION:action} %{IPV4:ip}"
        }
    }

    if "_grokparsefailure" in [tags] {
        drop { }
    }
}

output {
    stdout {
        codec => rubydebug
    }
}

output:

{
       "message" => "messages:Nov 15 18:13:53 myhostname fail2ban.actions[1585]: NOTICE [apache-badbots] Unban 41.82.165.220",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-11-15T21:53:59.634Z",
          "host" => "myhomepc",
          "date" => "Nov 15 18:13:53",
        "action" => "Unban",
            "ip" => "41.82.165.220"
}

mutate

We are getting pretty close … the most difficult part is over (grok patterns).
Just need to remove any exta fields. We can actually do that with two ways:

  1. grok - remove_field
  2. mutate -remove_field

We’ll try mutate cause is more powerful.

And for our example/goal we will not use any custom extra Action field, so:

logstash.conf

input {
    stdin { }
}

filter {

#    if [message]  !~ ' Ban ' {
#        drop { }
#    }

    grok {
        match => {
            "message" => "messages%{DATA}:%{SYSLOGTIMESTAMP:date} %{HOSTNAME} %{PROG}(?:[%{POSINT}])?: %{LOGLEVEL} [%{PROG}] Ban %{IPV4:ip}"
#            "message" => "messages%{DATA}:%{SYSLOGTIMESTAMP:date} %{HOSTNAME} %{PROG}(?:[%{POSINT}])?: %{LOGLEVEL} [%{PROG}] %{ACTION:action} %{IPV4:ip}"
        }
    }

    if "_grokparsefailure" in [tags] {
        drop { }
    }
    mutate {
        remove_field => [ "message", "@version", "@timestamp", "host" ]
    }
}

output {
    stdout {
        codec => rubydebug
    }
}

results:

{
    "date" => "Nov 15 17:49:32",
      "ip" => "66.249.76.104"
}

so close !!!

mutate - replace

According to syslog RFC (request for comments) [RFC 3164 - RFC 3195]:

 In particular, the timestamp has a year, making it a nonstandard format

so most of logs doesnt have a YEAR on their timestamp !!!

Logstash can add an extra field or replace an existing field :

logstash.conf

input {
    stdin { }
}

filter {

#    if [message]  !~ ' Ban ' {
#        drop { }
#    }

    grok {
        match => {
            "message" => "messages%{DATA}:%{SYSLOGTIMESTAMP:date} %{HOSTNAME} %{PROG}(?:[%{POSINT}])?: %{LOGLEVEL} [%{PROG}] Ban %{IPV4:ip}"
#            "message" => "messages%{DATA}:%{SYSLOGTIMESTAMP:date} %{HOSTNAME} %{PROG}(?:[%{POSINT}])?: %{LOGLEVEL} [%{PROG}] %{ACTION:action} %{IPV4:ip}"
        }
    }

    if "_grokparsefailure" in [tags] {
        drop { }
    }
    mutate {
        remove_field => [ "message", "@version", "@timestamp", "host" ]
        replace => { date => "%{+YYYY} %{date}" }
    }
}

output {
    stdout {
        codec => rubydebug
    }
}

the output:

{
    "date" => "2016 Nov 15 17:49:32",
      "ip" => "66.249.76.104"
}

GeoIP

The only thing that is missing from our original goal, is the country field!

Logstash has a geoip plugin that works perfectly with MaxMind

So we need to download the GeoIP database:


# wget -N http://geolite.maxmind.com/download/geoip/database/GeoLiteCountry/GeoIP.dat.gz

The best place is to put this file (uncompressed) under your logstash directory.

Now, it’s time to add the geoip support to the logstash.conf :

  # Add Country Name
  # wget -N http://geolite.maxmind.com/download/geoip/database/GeoLiteCountry/GeoIP.dat.gz
  geoip {
    source => "ip"
    target => "geoip"
    fields => ["country_name"]
    database => "GeoIP.dat"
   # database => "/etc/logstash/GeoIP.dat"
  }

the above goes under the filter section of logstash conf file.

running the above configuration

# head ../fail2ban | ./bin/logstash -f logstash.conf

should display something like this:


{
     "date" => "2016 Sep 11 11:51:24",
       "ip" => "37.49.225.180",
    "geoip" => {
        "country_name" => "Netherlands"
    }
}
{
     "date" => "2016 Sep 11 14:58:36",
       "ip" => "185.40.4.126",
    "geoip" => {
        "country_name" => "Russian Federation"
    }
}

We are now pretty close to our primary objective.

rename

It would be nice to somehow translate the geoip –> country_name to something more useful, like Country.

That’s why we are going to use the rename setting under the mutate plugin:

  mutate {
    rename => { "[geoip][country_name]"  => "Country" }
  }

so let’s put all them together:

    geoip {
        source => "ip"
        target => "geoip"
        fields => ["country_name"]
        database => "GeoIP.dat"
    }

    mutate {
        rename => { "[geoip][country_name]"  => "Country" }
        remove_field => [ "message", "@version", "@timestamp", "host", "geoip"]
        replace => { date => "%{+YYYY} %{date}" }
    }

test run it and the output will show you something like that:


{
       "date" => "2016 Sep 11 11:51:24",
         "ip" => "37.49.225.180",
    "Country" => "Netherlands"
}
{
       "date" => "2016 Sep 11 14:58:36",
         "ip" => "185.40.4.126",
    "Country" => "Russian Federation"
}

hurray !!!

finally we have completed our primary objective.

Input - Output

Input File

Until now, you have been reading from the standard input, but it’s time to read from the file.
To do so, we must add the bellow settings under the input section:

file {
    path => "/var/log/messages"
    start_position => "beginning"
}

Testing our configuration file (without giving input from the command line):

./bin/logstash -f logstash.conf

and the output will be something like this:

{
       "path" => "/var/log/messages",
       "date" => "2016 Nov 15 17:49:09",
         "ip" => "66.249.76.67",
    "Country" => "United States"
}
{
       "path" => "/var/log/messages",
       "date" => "2016 Nov 15 17:49:32",
         "ip" => "66.249.76.104",
    "Country" => "United States"
}

so by changing the input from the standard input to a file path, we added a new extra filed.
The path

Just remove it with mutate –> remove_field as we already shown above

Output

Now it’s time to send everything to our elastic search engine:

output {

    # stdout {
    #    codec => rubydebug
    # }

    elasticsearch {
    }

}

Be Careful: In our above examples we have removed the timestamp field
but for the elasticsearch to work, we must enable it again:

remove_field => [ "message", "@version", "host", "geoip"]

Elasticsearch

Uncompress and run elastic search engine:

# unzip elasticsearch-2.4.1.zip
# cd elasticsearch-2.4.1/
# ./bin/elasticsearch

elasticsearch is running under:

tcp6       0      0 127.0.0.1:9200          :::*                    LISTEN      27862/java
tcp6       0      0 127.0.0.1:9300          :::*                    LISTEN      27862/java

Impressive, but that’s it!

Status

Let’s find out if the elasticsearch engine is running:

$ curl 'localhost:9200/_cat/health?v'

$ curl -XGET 'http://localhost:9200/_cluster/health?pretty=true'

epoch      timestamp cluster       status node.total node.data shards pri relo init unassign pending_tasks max_task_wait_time active_shards_percent
1482421814 17:50:14  elasticsearch yellow          1         1      1   1    0    0        1             0                  -                 50.0% 

$ curl 'localhost:9200/_cat/nodes?v'

host      ip        heap.percent ram.percent load node.role master name
127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1            7          98 0.50 d         *      Hazmat 

# curl -s -XGET 'http://localhost:9200/_cluster/health?level=indices' | jq .

logstash

Now it’s time to send our data to our elastic search engine, running the logstash daemon with input the fail2ban file and output the elastic search.

Kibana

We are almost done. There is only one more step to our 101 course for ELK infrastructure.

And that is the kibana dashboard.

setup kibana

Uncompress and run the kibana dashboard:

 tar xf kibana-4.6.3-linux-x86_64.tar.gz
 ./bin/kibana

dashboard

Now simply, open the kibana dashboard on:

http://127.0.0.1:5601

elk_01.jpg

elk_02.jpg

elk_03.jpg

elk_04.jpg

Nov
17
2016
enlarge your disk image aka windows extend volume

A visual guide on how to enlarge your windows disk image aka windows extend volume

I have a windows 10 qemu-kvm virtual machine for business purposes.
Every now and then, I have to resize it’s disk image!

This is my visual guide, so next time I will not waste any time figure this out, again!

Resize Disk image

The first step is to resize the disk image from the command line:


# ls -l win10.qcow2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 58861813760 Nov 17 10:04 win10.qcow2

# du -h win10.qcow2
55G win10.qcow2

#  qemu-img info win10.qcow2
image: win10.qcow2
file format: qcow2
virtual size: 55G (59055800320 bytes)
disk size: 55G
cluster_size: 65536
Format specific information:
    compat: 1.1
    lazy refcounts: false
    refcount bits: 16
    corrupt: false
#  qemu-img resize win10.qcow2 +10G
Image resized.
# qemu-img info win10.qcow2
image: win10.qcow2
file format: qcow2
virtual size: 65G (69793218560 bytes)
disk size: 55G
cluster_size: 65536
Format specific information:
    compat: 1.1
    lazy refcounts: false
    refcount bits: 16
    corrupt: false

Windows Problem - extend volume

Windows can not extend a volume if the free partition is not next to the “need-to-be” extened volume.

enlarge_win10_01.png

So we have to move the free partition next to C: drive

System Rescue Cd

Here comes system rescue cd !

enlarge_systemrescuecd.png

Gparted

with gparted you can move to the end of the virtual disk the ntfs recovery partition:

enlarge_gparted_01.png

enlarge_gparted_02.png

enlarge_gparted_03.png

enlarge_gparted_04.png

enlarge_gparted_05.png

enlarge_gparted_06.png

enlarge_gparted_07.png

enlarge_gparted_08.png

Computer Management - Disk Management

It’s time to extend our partition:

enlarge_win10_02.png

enlarge_win10_03.png

enlarge_win10_04.png

enlarge_win10_05.png

Finish

enlarge_win10_06.png

Tag(s): kvm, qemu, windows
Oct
26
2016
Thunderbird Enigmail

A Beginner’s Guide on How to use Thunderbird with Enigmail (Gpg4win) with their gmail account in 10 minutes on a windows machine

Thunderbird Enigmail - Gmail, Windows from vimeouser on Vimeo.

Oct
17
2016
Linux Raid mdadm md0

Linux Raid

This blog post is created as a mental note for future reference

Linux Raid is the de-facto way for decades in the linux-world on how to create and use a software raid. RAID stands for: Redundant Array of Independent Disks. Some people use the I for inexpensive disks, I guess that works too!

In simple terms, you can use a lot of hard disks to behave as one disk with special capabilities!

You can use your own inexpensive/independent hard disks as long as they have the same geometry and you can do almost everything. Also it’s pretty easy to learn and use linux raid. If you dont have the same geometry, then linux raid will use the smallest one from your disks. Modern methods, like LVM and BTRFS can provide an abstract layer with more capabilities to their users, but some times (or because something you have built a loooong time ago) you need to go back to basics.

And every time -EVERY time- I am searching online for all these cool commands that those cool kids are using. Cause what’s more exciting than replacing your -a decade ago- linux raid setup this typical Saturday night?

Identify your Hard Disks


% find /sys/devices/ -type f -name model -exec cat {} \;
ST1000DX001-1CM1
ST1000DX001-1CM1
ST1000DX001-1CM1

% lsblk
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE  MOUNTPOINT
sda      8:0    0 931.5G  0 disk
sdb      8:16   0 931.5G  0 disk
sdc      8:32   0 931.5G  0 disk  

% lsblk -io KNAME,TYPE,SIZE,MODEL

KNAME TYPE    SIZE MODEL
sda   disk  931.5G ST1000DX001-1CM1
sdb   disk  931.5G ST1000DX001-1CM1
sdc   disk  931.5G ST1000DX001-1CM1

Create a RAID-5 with 3 Disks

Having 3 hard disks of 1T size, we are going to use the raid-5 Level . That means that we have 2T of disk usage and the third disk with keep the parity of the first two disks. Raid5 provides us with the benefit of loosing one hard disk without loosing any data from our hard disk scheme.

raid5.png


% mdadm -C -v /dev/md0 --level=5 --raid-devices=3 /dev/sda /dev/sdb /dev/sdc 

mdadm: layout defaults to left-symmetric
mdadm: layout defaults to left-symmetric
mdadm: chunk size defaults to 512K
mdadm: sze set to 5238784K
mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata
md/raid:md0 raid level 5 active with 2 our of 3 devices, algorithm 2
mdadm: array /dev/md0 started.

% cat /proc/mdstat

Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]
md0: active raid5 sdc[3] sdb[2] sda[1]
        10477568 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chink, algorith 2 [3/3] [UUU]

unused devices: <none>

running lsblk will show us our new scheme:

# lsblk -io KNAME,TYPE,SIZE,MODEL
KNAME TYPE    SIZE MODEL
sda   disk  931.5G ST1000DX001-1CM1
md0   raid5   1.8T
sdb   disk  931.5G ST1000DX001-1CM1
md0   raid5   1.8T
sdc   disk  931.5G ST1000DX001-1CM1
md0   raid5   1.8T

Save the Linux Raid configuration into a file

Software linux raid means that the raid configuration is actually ON the hard disks. You can take those 3 disks and put them to another linux box and everything will be there!! If you are keeping your operating system to another harddisk, you can also change your linux distro from one to another and your data will be on your linux raid5 and you can access them without any extra software from your new linux distro.

But it is a good idea to keep the basic conf to a specific configuration file, so if you have hardware problems your machine could understand what type of linux raid level you need to have on those broken disks!


% mdadm --detail --scan >> /etc/mdadm.conf

% cat /etc/mdadm.conf
ARRAY /dev/md0 metadata=1.2 name=MyServer:0 UUID=ef5da4df:3e53572e:c3fe1191:925b24cf

UUID - Universally Unique IDentifier

Be very careful that the above UUID is the UUID of the linux raid on your disks.
We have not yet created a filesystem over this new disk /dev/md0 and if you need to add this filesystem under your fstab file you can not use the UUID of the linux raid md0 disk.

Below there is an example on my system:

% blkid
/dev/sda: UUID="ef5da4df-3e53-572e-c3fe-1191925b24cf" UUID_SUB="f4e1da17-e4ff-74f0-b1cf-6ec86eca3df1" LABEL="MyServer:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"
/dev/sdb: UUID="ef5da4df-3e53-572e-c3fe-1191925b24cf" UUID_SUB="ad7315e5-56ce-bd8c-75c5-0a72893a63db" LABEL="MyServer:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member"
/dev/sdc: UUID="ef5da4df-3e53-572e-c3fe-1191925b24cf" UUID_SUB="a90e317e-4384-8f30-0de1-ee77f8912610" LABEL="MyServer:0" TYPE="linux_raid_member" 

/dev/md0: LABEL="data" UUID="48fc963a-2128-4d35-85fb-b79e2546dce7" TYPE="ext4" 

% cat /etc/fstab

UUID=48fc963a-2128-4d35-85fb-b79e2546dce7   /backup auto    defaults    0   0

Replacing a hard disk

Hard disks will fail you. This is a fact that every sysadmin knows from day one. Systems will fail at some point in the future. So be prepared and keep backups !!

Failing a disk

Now it’s time to fail (if not already) the disk we want to replace:

% mdadm --manage /dev/md0 --fail /dev/sdb
mdadm: set /dev/sdb faulty in /dev/md0

Remove a broken disk

Here is a simple way to remove a broken disk from your linux raid configuration. Remember with raid5 level we can manage with 2 hard disks.

% mdadm --manage /dev/md0 --remove /dev/sdb
mdadm: hot removed /dev/sdb from /dev/md0

% cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]
md0 : active raid5 sda[1] sdc[3]
      1953262592 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [3/2] [_UU]

unused devices: <none>

dmesg shows:


% dmesg | tail

md: data-check of RAID array md0
md: minimum _guaranteed_  speed: 1000 KB/sec/disk.
md: using maximum available idle IO bandwidth (but not more than 200000 KB/sec) for data-check.
md: using 128k window, over a total of 976631296k.
md: md0: data-check done.
md/raid:md0: Disk failure on sdb, disabling device.
md/raid:md0: Operation continuing on 2 devices.
RAID conf printout:
 --- level:5 rd:3 wd:2
 disk 0, o:0, dev:sda
 disk 1, o:1, dev:sdb
 disk 2, o:1, dev:sdc
RAID conf printout:
 --- level:5 rd:3 wd:2
 disk 0, o:0, dev:sda
 disk 2, o:1, dev:sdc
md: unbind<sdb>
md: export_rdev(sdb)

Adding a new disk - replacing a broken one

Now it’s time to add a new and (if possible) clean hard disk. Just to be sure, I always wipe with dd the first few kilobytes of every disk with zeros.

Using mdadm to add this new disk:


# mdadm --manage /dev/md0 --add /dev/sdb
mdadm: added /dev/sdb

% cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]
md0 : active raid5 sdb[4] sda[1] sdc[3]
      1953262592 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [3/2] [_UU]
      [>....................]  recovery =  0.2% (2753372/976631296) finish=189.9min speed=85436K/sec

unused devices: <none>

For a 1T Hard Disk is about 3h of recovering data. Keep that in mind on scheduling the maintenance window.

after a few minutes:

% cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]
md0 : active raid5 sdb[4] sda[1] sdc[3]
      1953262592 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [3/2] [_UU]
      [>....................]  recovery =  4.8% (47825800/976631296) finish=158.3min speed=97781K/sec

unused devices: <none>

mdadm shows:

% mdadm --detail /dev/md0 

/dev/md0:
        Version : 1.2
  Creation Time : Wed Feb 26 21:00:17 2014
     Raid Level : raid5
     Array Size : 1953262592 (1862.78 GiB 2000.14 GB)
  Used Dev Size : 976631296 (931.39 GiB 1000.07 GB)
   Raid Devices : 3
  Total Devices : 3
    Persistence : Superblock is persistent

    Update Time : Mon Oct 17 21:52:05 2016
          State : clean, degraded, recovering
 Active Devices : 2
Working Devices : 3
 Failed Devices : 0
  Spare Devices : 1

         Layout : left-symmetric
     Chunk Size : 512K

 Rebuild Status : 58% complete

           Name : MyServer:0  (local to host MyServer)
           UUID : ef5da4df:3e53572e:c3fe1191:925b24cf
         Events : 554

    Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
       1       8       16        1      active sync   /dev/sda
       4       8       32        0      spare rebuilding   /dev/sdb
       3       8       48        2      active sync   /dev/sdc

You can use watch command that refreshes every two seconds your terminal with the output :


# watch cat /proc/mdstat

Every 2.0s: cat /proc/mdstat                                                                                               Mon Oct 17 21:53:34 2016

Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]
md0 : active raid5 sdb[4] sda[1] sdc[3]
      1953262592 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [3/2] [_UU]
      [===========>.........]  recovery = 59.4% (580918844/976631296) finish=69.2min speed=95229K/sec

unused devices: <none>

Growing a Linux Raid

Even so … 2T is not a lot of disk usage these days! If you need to grow-extend your linux raid, then you need hard disks with the same geometry (or larger).

Steps on growing your linux raid are also simply:

# Umount the linux raid device:
% umount /dev/md0

# Add the new disk
% mdadm --add /dev/md0 /dev/sdd

# Check mdstat
% cat /proc/mdstat

# Grow linux raid by one device
%  mdadm --grow /dev/md0 --raid-devices=4

# watch mdstat for reshaping to complete - also 3h+ something
% watch cat /proc/mdstat

# Filesystem check your linux raid device
% fsck -y /dev/md0

# Resize - Important
% resize2fs /dev/md0

But sometimes life happens …

Need 1 spare to avoid degraded array, and only have 0.

mdadm: Need 1 spare to avoid degraded array, and only have 0.

or

mdadm: Failed to initiate reshape!

Sometimes you get an error that informs you that you can not grow your linux raid device! It’s not time to panic or flee the scene. You’ve got this. You have already kept a recent backup before you started and you also reading this blog post!

You need a (an extra) backup-file !


% mdadm --grow --raid-devices=4 --backup-file=/tmp/backup.file /dev/md0
mdadm: Need to backup 3072K of critical section..

% cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid1] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid10]
md0 : active raid5 sda[4] sdb[0] sdd[3] sdc[1]
      1953262592 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [4/4] [UUUU]
      [>....................]  reshape =  0.0

% (66460/976631296) finish=1224.4min speed=13292K/sec

unused devices: <none>

1224.4min seems a lot !!!

dmesg shows:


% dmesg
[   36.477638] md: Autodetecting RAID arrays.
[   36.477649] md: Scanned 0 and added 0 devices.
[   36.477654] md: autorun ...
[   36.477658] md: ... autorun DONE.

[  602.987144] md: bind<sda>
[  603.219025] RAID conf printout:
[  603.219036]  --- level:5 rd:3 wd:3
[  603.219044]  disk 0, o:1, dev:sdb
[  603.219050]  disk 1, o:1, dev:sdc
[  603.219055]  disk 2, o:1, dev:sdd
[  608.650884] RAID conf printout:
[  608.650896]  --- level:5 rd:3 wd:3
[  608.650903]  disk 0, o:1, dev:sdb
[  608.650910]  disk 1, o:1, dev:sdc
[  608.650915]  disk 2, o:1, dev:sdd
[  684.308820] RAID conf printout:
[  684.308832]  --- level:5 rd:4 wd:4
[  684.308840]  disk 0, o:1, dev:sdb
[  684.308846]  disk 1, o:1, dev:sdc
[  684.308851]  disk 2, o:1, dev:sdd
[  684.308855]  disk 3, o:1, dev:sda
[  684.309079] md: reshape of RAID array md0
[  684.309089] md: minimum _guaranteed_  speed: 1000 KB/sec/disk.
[  684.309094] md: using maximum available idle IO bandwidth (but not more than 200000 KB/sec) for reshape.
[  684.309105] md: using 128k window, over a total of 976631296k.

mdstat

% cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid1] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid10]
md0 : active raid5 sda[4] sdb[0] sdd[3] sdc[1]
      1953262592 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [4/4] [UUUU]
      [>....................]  reshape =  0.0

% (349696/976631296) finish=697.9min speed=23313K/sec

unused devices: <none>

ok it’s now 670minutes

Time to use watch:

(after a while)

% watch cat /proc/mdstat

Personalities : [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid1] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid10]
md0 : active raid5 sda[4] sdb[0] sdd[3] sdc[1]
      1953262592 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [4/4] [UUUU]
      [===========>......]  reshape = 66.1% (646514752/976631296) finish=157.4min speed=60171K/sec

unused devices: <none>

mdadm shows:


% mdadm --detail /dev/md0

/dev/md0:
        Version : 1.2
  Creation Time : Thu Feb  6 13:06:34 2014
     Raid Level : raid5
     Array Size : 1953262592 (1862.78 GiB 2000.14 GB)
  Used Dev Size : 976631296 (931.39 GiB 1000.07 GB)
   Raid Devices : 4
  Total Devices : 4
    Persistence : Superblock is persistent

    Update Time : Sat Oct 22 14:59:33 2016
          State : clean, reshaping
 Active Devices : 4
Working Devices : 4
 Failed Devices : 0
  Spare Devices : 0

         Layout : left-symmetric
     Chunk Size : 512K

 Reshape Status : 66% complete
  Delta Devices : 1, (3->4)

           Name : MyServer:0
           UUID : d635095e:50457059:7e6ccdaf:7da91c9b
         Events : 1536

    Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State
       0       8       16        0      active sync   /dev/sdb
       1       8       32        1      active sync   /dev/sdc
       3       8       48        2      active sync   /dev/sdd
       4       8        0        3      active sync   /dev/sda

be patient and keep an aye on mdstat under proc.

So basically those are the steps, hopefuly you will find them useful.

Tag(s): md0, mdadm, linux, raid
Oct
11
2016
Find your hard disk model


# /bin/find /sys/devices -type f -name model -exec cat {} \; 

KINGSTON SV300S3
WDC WD10EURX-63F
WDC WD10EZRX-00A
VB0250EAVER     
VB0250EAVER     

# udisksctl status

MODEL                     REVISION  SERIAL               DEVICE
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
KINGSTON SV300S37A120G    527ABBF0  50026B774902D7E5     sda     
WDC WD10EURX-63FH1Y0      01.01A01  WD-WMC1U5525831      sdb     
WDC WD10EZRX-00A8LB0      01.01A01  WD-WCC1U2715714      sdc     
VB0250EAVER               HPG9      Z3TLRVYK             sdd     
VB0250EAVER               HPG9      Z3TLRRKM             sde   

# lsblk -io KNAME,TYPE,SIZE,MODEL

KNAME TYPE    SIZE MODEL
sda   disk  111,8G KINGSTON SV300S3
sdb   disk  931,5G WDC WD10EURX-63F
sdc   disk  931,5G WDC WD10EZRX-00A
sdd   disk  232,9G VB0250EAVER     
sde   disk  232,9G VB0250EAVER     

also



# smartctl -a -i /dev/sda

# hdparm -i /dev/sda

# lshw -class disk

# hwinfo --disk

Tag(s): hard disk
Oct
10
2016
JS get HTML code from a DIV element

Most people -reading this blog post- will scream in their chairs … PLZ keep in-mind that I am not a developer and perhaps the below workaround is just that, a workaround.

I have this case that I need to render (with JS) text that already has passed through the PHP parser.
The caveat is that the text output is inside a <DIV> element and has HTML code in it.

Most of you understand that HTML inside a DIV element is not something useful as the browser’s engine is rendering it to HTML on page load. That means, that we can not get the innerHTML of this DIV element, as it is already rendered by the browser.

Let me give you an example:

<div>

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <body>
      <p align="center">
        <div> An Example </div>
      </p>
  </body>
</html>

</div>

If you open a test.html page with the above code, and fire up any browser, you will see only: An Example as the output of the above DIV. There is no way to get the HTML code from the above example.

You probably thinking that I need to edit the PHP parser. Actually this DIV element is been filled up with an Ajax request from the PHP API, so no luck on the server-side code.

After spending a brutal weekend with http://www.w3schools.com and reading through every stackoverflow question, nothing appeared to get me closer to my purpose.

I’ve tried jquery with .html(), .text(), getting the innerHTML, I’ve tried everything I could think of. The only way to get the HTML code from inside an HTML DOM element is if the HTML code was/is inside a TEXT element, somehow.

I needed to get a TEXT element instead of a DIV element, so that I could get the text value of the HTML element.

So here is my workaround:

I encapsulated a hidden textarea HTML element inside the DIV !


<div class="show_myclass">
<textarea class="myclass" style="display:none;">

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <body>
      <p align="center">
        <div> An Example </div>
      </p>
  </body>
</html>

</ textarea>
</ div>

I can now, get the text value of the textarea and use it.
My JS code became something like this:


1.    $(".myclass").each(function(i, block ) {
2.        document.getElementsByClassName("show_myclass")[i].innerHTML = my_function_that_does_magic( block.value );
3.    });

Let me explain a few things … for people that are nοt so much familiar with jquery or JS (like me).

Line 1: Α jquery selector by class, exactly like this getElementsByClassName() in HTML DOM but it is an iterator already with each function. For every element with classname = myclass do something. In a page with multiple DIVs-TextAreas this will be very useful.

Line 2: Get the TEXT value from the textarea ( block.value ) and run it as argument thought our magic function. Then populate the HTML result on the DIV element with the same iterator.

In conclusion, when the browser finally renders the whole page, the above javascript code will override the DIV element and will instead of -not- showing the hidden textarea, will show the output of our my_function_that_does_magic function !!!

Tag(s): JS, javascript
Aug
22
2016
Read It Later or Read It Never ?

reading.jpg

 

I really like this comic.
I try to read/learn something every day.

 

Sometimes, when I find an interesting article, I like to mark it for reading it later.

 

I use many forms of marking, like pin tabs, bookmarking, sending url via email, save the html page to a folder, save it to my wallabag instance, leave my browser open to this tab, send the URL QR to my phone etc etc etc.

 

Are all the above ways productive?

 

None … the time to read something is now!
I mean the first time you lay your eyes upon the article.

 

Not later, not when you have free time, now.

 

That’s the way it works with me. Perhaps with you something else is more productive.

 

I have a short attention span and it is better for me to drop everything and read something carefully that save it for later or some other time.

 

When I really have to save it for later, my preferable way is to save it to my wallabag instance. It’s perfect and you will love it.

 

I also have a kobo ebook (e-ink) reader. Not the android based.
From my wallabag I can save them to epub and export them to my kobo.

 

But I am lazy and I never do it.

 

My kobo reader has a pocket (getpocket) account.

 

So I’ve tried to save some articles but not always pocket can parse properly the content of an article. Not even wallabag always work 100%.

 

The superiority of wallabag (and self-hosted application) is that when a parsing problem occurs I can fix them! Open a git push request and then EVERYBODY in the community will be able to read-this article from this content provider-later. I cant do something like that with pocket or readability.

 

And then … there are ads !!! Lots of ads, Tons of ads !!!

 

There is a correct way to do ads and this is when you are not covering the article you want people to read!
The are a lot of wrong ways to do ads: inline the text, above the article, hiding some of the content, make people buy a fee, provide an article to small pages (you know that height in HTML is not a problem, right?) and then there is bandwidth issues.

When I am on my mobile, I DONT want to pay extra for bandwidth I DIDNT ask and certainly do not care about it!!!
If I read the article on my tiny mobile display DO NOT COVER the article with huge ads that I can not find the X-close button because it doesnt fit to my display !!!

So yes, there is a correct way to do ads and that is by respecting the reader and there is a wrong way to do ads.

 

Getting back to the article’s subject, below you will see six (6) ways to read an article on my desktop. Of course there are hundreds ways but there are the most common ones:

 

Article: The cyberpunk dystopia we were warned about is already here


https://versions.killscreen.com/cyberpunk-dystopia-warned-already/
 

Extra info:
windows width: 852
2 times zoom-out to view more text

 
  1. Pocket
  2. Original Post in Firefox 48.0.1
  3. Wallabag
  4. Reader View in Firefox
  5. Chromium 52.0.2743.116
  6. Midori 0.5.11 - WebKitGTK+ 2.4.11
 

Click to zoom:

I believe that Reader View in Firefox is the winner of this test. It is clean and it is focusing on the actual article.
Impressive !

Tag(s): wallabag
Aug
04
2016
Open compressed file with gzip zcat perl php lua python

I have a compressed file of:


250.000.000 lines
Compressed the file size is: 671M
Uncompressed, it's: 6,5G

Need to extract a plethora of things and verify some others.

I dont want to use bash but something more elegant, like python or lua.

Looking through “The-Internet”, I’ve created some examples for the single purpose of educating my self.

So here are my results.
BE AWARE they are far-far-far away from perfect in code or execution.

Sorted by (less) time of execution:

pigz

pigz - Parallel gzip - Zlib



# time pigz  -p4 -cd  2016-08-04-06.ldif.gz &> /dev/null 

real    0m9.980s
user    0m16.570s
sys 0m0.980s

gzip

gzip 1.8



# time /bin/gzip -cd 2016-08-04-06.ldif.gz &> /dev/null

real    0m23.951s
user    0m23.790s
sys 0m0.150s

zcat

zcat (gzip) 1.8



# time zcat 2016-08-04-06.ldif.gz &> /dev/null

real    0m24.202s
user    0m24.100s
sys 0m0.090s

Perl

Perl v5.24.0

code:



#!/usr/bin/perl

open (FILE, '/bin/gzip -cd 2016-08-04-06.ldif.gz |');

while (my $line = ) {
  print $line;
}

close FILE;

time:


# time ./dump.pl &> /dev/null

real    0m49.942s
user    1m14.260s
sys 0m2.350s

PHP

PHP 7.0.9 (cli)

code:


#!/usr/bin/php

< ? php

  $fp = gzopen("2016-08-04-06.ldif.gz", "r");

  while (($buffer = fgets($fp, 4096)) !== false) {
        echo $buffer;
  }

  gzclose($fp);

 ? >

time:


# time php -f dump.php &> /dev/null

real    1m19.407s
user    1m4.840s
sys 0m14.340s

PHP - Iteration #2

PHP 7.0.9 (cli)

Impressed with php results, I took the perl-approach on code:



< ? php

  $fp = popen("/bin/gzip -cd 2016-08-04-06.ldif.gz", "r");

  while (($buffer = fgets($fp, 4096)) !== false) {
        echo $buffer;
  }

  pclose($fp);

 ? >

time:


# time php -f dump2.php &> /dev/null 

real    1m6.845s
user    1m15.590s
sys 0m19.940s

not bad !

Lua

Lua 5.3.3

code:


#!/usr/bin/lua

local gzip = require 'gzip'

local filename = "2016-08-04-06.ldif.gz"

for l in gzip.lines(filename) do
  print(l)
end

time:


# time ./dump.lua &> /dev/null

real    3m50.899s
user    3m35.080s
sys 0m15.780s

Lua - Iteration #2

Lua 5.3.3

I was depressed to see that php is faster than lua!!
Depressed I say !

So here is my next iteration on lua:

code:


#!/usr/bin/lua

local file = assert(io.popen('/bin/gzip -cd 2016-08-04-06.ldif.gz', 'r'))

while true do
        line = file:read()
        if line == nil then break end
        print (line)
end
file:close()

time:


# time ./dump2.lua &> /dev/null 

real    2m45.908s
user    2m54.470s
sys 0m21.360s

One minute faster than before, but still too slow !!

Lua - Zlib

Lua 5.3.3

My next iteration with lua is using zlib :

code:



#!/usr/bin/lua

local zlib = require 'zlib'
local filename = "2016-08-04-06.ldif.gz"

local block = 64
local d = zlib.inflate()

local file = assert(io.open(filename, "rb"))
while true do
  bytes = file:read(block)
  if not bytes then break end
  print (d(bytes))
end

file:close()

time:



# time ./dump.lua  &> /dev/null 

real    0m41.546s
user    0m40.460s
sys 0m1.080s

Now, that's what I am talking about !!!

Playing with window_size (block) can make your code faster or slower.

Python v3

Python 3.5.2

code:


#!/usr/bin/python

import gzip

filename='2016-08-04-06.ldif.gz'
with gzip.open(filename, 'r') as f:
    for line in f:
        print(line,)

time:


# time ./dump.py &> /dev/null

real    13m14.460s
user    13m13.440s
sys 0m0.670s

Not enough tissues on the whole damn world!

Python v3 - Iteration #2

Python 3.5.2

but wait ... a moment ... The default mode for gzip.open is 'rb'.
(read binary)

let's try this once more with rt(read-text) mode:

code:


#!/usr/bin/python

import gzip

filename='2016-08-04-06.ldif.gz'
with gzip.open(filename, 'rt') as f:
    for line in f:
        print(line, end="")

time:


# time ./dump.py &> /dev/null 

real    5m33.098s
user    5m32.610s
sys 0m0.410s

With only one super tiny change and run time in half!!!
But still tooo slow.

Python v3 - Iteration #3

Python 3.5.2

Let's try a third iteration with popen this time.

code:


#!/usr/bin/python

import os

cmd = "/bin/gzip -cd 2016-08-04-06.ldif.gz"
f = os.popen(cmd)
for line in f:
  print(line, end="")
f.close()

time:


# time ./dump2.py &> /dev/null 

real    6m45.646s
user    7m13.280s
sys 0m6.470s

Python v3 - zlib Iteration #1

Python 3.5.2

Let's try a zlib iteration this time.

code:



#!/usr/bin/python

import zlib

d = zlib.decompressobj(zlib.MAX_WBITS | 16)
filename='2016-08-04-06.ldif.gz'

with open(filename, 'rb') as f:
    for line in f:
        print(d.decompress(line))

time:


# time ./dump.zlib.py &> /dev/null 

real    1m4.389s
user    1m3.440s
sys 0m0.410s

finally some proper values with python !!!

Specs

All the running tests occurred to this machine:


4 x Intel(R) Core(TM) i3-3220 CPU @ 3.30GHz
8G RAM

Conclusions

Ok, I Know !

The shell-pipe approach of using gzip for opening the compressed file, is not fair to all the above code snippets.
But ... who cares ?

I need something that run fast as hell and does smart things on those data.

Get in touch

As I am not a developer, I know that you people know how to do these things even better!

So I would love to hear any suggestions or even criticism on the above examples.

I will update/report everything that will pass the "I think I know what this code do" rule and ... be gently with me ;)

PLZ use my email address: evaggelos [ _at_ ] balaskas [ _dot_ ] gr

to send me any suggestions

Thanks !

Tag(s): php, perl, python, lua, pigz
Aug
03
2016
How to dockerize a live system

I need to run some ansible playbooks to a running (live) machine.
But, of-course, I cant use a production server for testing purposes !!

So here comes docker!
I have ssh access from my docker-server to this production server:



[docker-server] ssh livebox tar --one-file-system --sparse -C / -cf -  | docker import - centos6:livebox 

Then run the new docker image:



[docker-server]  docker run -t -i --rm -p 2222:22 centos6:livebox bash                                                  

[root@40b2bab2f306 /]# /usr/sbin/sshd -D                                                                             

Create a new entry on your hosts inventory file, that uses ssh port 2222
or create a new separated inventory file

and test it with ansible ping module:


# ansible -m ping -i hosts.docker dockerlivebox

dockerlivebox | success >> {
    "changed": false,
    "ping": "pong"
}

Tag(s): docker
Jul
21
2016
Gaggia Classic - Graef CM 800

gaggia_graef.jpg

Tag(s): coffee
Jun
19
2016
vagrant docker ansible

Recently, I had the opportunity to see a presentation on the subject by Alexandros Kosiaris.

I was never fan of vagrant (or even virtualbox) but I gave it a try and below are my personal notes on the matter.
All my notes are based on Archlinux as it is my primary distribution but I think you can try them with every Gnu Linux OS.

Vagrant

So what is Vagrant ?

Vagrant is a wrapper, an abstraction layer to deal with some virtual solutions, like virtualbox, Vmware, hyper-v, docker, aws etc etc etc
With a few lines you can describe what you want to do and then use vagrant to create your enviroment of virtual boxes to work with.

Just for the fun of it, I used docker

Docker

We first need to create and build a proper Docker Image!

The Dockerfile below, is suggesting that we already have an archlinux:latest docker image.
You can use your own dockerfile or docker image.

You need to have an ssh connection to this docker image and you will need -of course- to have a ssh password or a ssh authorized key built in this image for root. If you are using sudo (then even better) dont forget to add the user to sudoers!



# vim Dockerfile 

# sshd on archlinux
#
# VERSION               0.0.2

FROM     archlinux:latest
MAINTAINER  Evaggelos Balaskas < evaggelos _AT_ balaskas _DOT_ gr >

# Update the repositories
RUN  pacman -Syy && pacman -S --noconfirm openssh python2

# Generate host keys
RUN  /usr/bin/ssh-keygen -A

# Add password to root user
RUN  echo 'root:roottoor' | chpasswd

# Fix sshd
RUN  sed -i -e 's/^UsePAM yes/UsePAM no/g' /etc/ssh/sshd_config && echo 'PermitRootLogin yes' >> /etc/ssh/sshd_config

# Expose tcp port
EXPOSE   22

# Run openssh daemon
CMD  ["/usr/sbin/sshd", "-D"]

Again, you dont need to follow this step by the book!
It is an example to understand that you need a proper docker image that you can ssh into it.

Build the docker image:



# docker build -t archlinux:sshd . 

On my PC:



# docker images 

REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
archlinux           sshd                1b074ffe98be        7 days ago          636.2 MB
archlinux           latest              c0c56d24b865        7 days ago          534 MB
archlinux           devel               e66b5b8af509        2 weeks ago         607 MB
centos6             powerdns            daf76074f848        3 months ago        893 MB
centos6             newdnsps            642462a8dfb4        3 months ago        546.6 MB
centos7             cloudstack          b5e696e65c50        6 months ago        1.463 GB
centos7             latest              d96affc2f996        6 months ago        500.2 MB
centos6             latest              4ba27f5a1189        6 months ago        489.8 MB

Environment

We can define docker as our default provider with:


# export VAGRANT_DEFAULT_PROVIDER=docker

It is not necessary to define the default provider, as you will see below,
but it is also a good idea - if your forget to declare your vagrant provider later

Before we start with vagrant, let us create a new folder:



# mkdir -pv vagrant
# cd vagrant 

Initialization

We are ready to initialized our enviroment for vagrant:


# vagrant init

A `Vagrantfile` has been placed in this directory. You are now
ready to `vagrant up` your first virtual environment! Please read
the comments in the Vagrantfile as well as documentation on
`vagrantup.com` for more information on using Vagrant.

Initial Vagrantfile

A typical vagrant configuration file looks something like this:



# cat Vagrantfile
 cat Vagrantfile
# -*- mode: ruby -*-
# vi: set ft=ruby :

# All Vagrant configuration is done below. The "2" in Vagrant.configure
# configures the configuration version (we support older styles for
# backwards compatibility). Please don't change it unless you know what
# you're doing.
Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|
  # The most common configuration options are documented and commented below.
  # For a complete reference, please see the online documentation at
  # https://docs.vagrantup.com.

  # Every Vagrant development environment requires a box. You can search for
  # boxes at https://atlas.hashicorp.com/search.
  config.vm.box = "base"

  # Disable automatic box update checking. If you disable this, then
  # boxes will only be checked for updates when the user runs
  # `vagrant box outdated`. This is not recommended.
  # config.vm.box_check_update = false

  # Create a forwarded port mapping which allows access to a specific port
  # within the machine from a port on the host machine. In the example below,
  # accessing "localhost:8080" will access port 80 on the guest machine.
  # config.vm.network "forwarded_port", guest: 80, host: 8080

  # Create a private network, which allows host-only access to the machine
  # using a specific IP.
  # config.vm.network "private_network", ip: "192.168.33.10"

  # Create a public network, which generally matched to bridged network.
  # Bridged networks make the machine appear as another physical device on
  # your network.
  # config.vm.network "public_network"

  # Share an additional folder to the guest VM. The first argument is
  # the path on the host to the actual folder. The second argument is
  # the path on the guest to mount the folder. And the optional third
  # argument is a set of non-required options.
  # config.vm.synced_folder "../data", "/vagrant_data"

  # Provider-specific configuration so you can fine-tune various
  # backing providers for Vagrant. These expose provider-specific options.
  # Example for VirtualBox:
  #
  # config.vm.provider "virtualbox" do |vb|
  #   # Display the VirtualBox GUI when booting the machine
  #   vb.gui = true
  #
  #   # Customize the amount of memory on the VM:
  #   vb.memory = "1024"
  # end
  #
  # View the documentation for the provider you are using for more
  # information on available options.

  # Define a Vagrant Push strategy for pushing to Atlas. Other push strategies
  # such as FTP and Heroku are also available. See the documentation at
  # https://docs.vagrantup.com/v2/push/atlas.html for more information.
  # config.push.define "atlas" do |push|
  #   push.app = "YOUR_ATLAS_USERNAME/YOUR_APPLICATION_NAME"
  # end

  # Enable provisioning with a shell script. Additional provisioners such as
  # Puppet, Chef, Ansible, Salt, and Docker are also available. Please see the
  # documentation for more information about their specific syntax and use.
  # config.vm.provision "shell", inline: <<-SHELL
  #   apt-get update
  #   apt-get install -y apache2
  # SHELL
end

If you try to run this Vagrant configuration file with docker provider,
it will try to boot up base image (Vagrant Default box):



# vagrant up --provider=docker

Bringing machine 'default' up with 'docker' provider...
==> default: Box 'base' could not be found. Attempting to find and install...
    default: Box Provider: docker
    default: Box Version: >= 0
==> default: Box file was not detected as metadata. Adding it directly...
==> default: Adding box 'base' (v0) for provider: docker
    default: Downloading: base
An error occurred while downloading the remote file. The error
message, if any, is reproduced below. Please fix this error and try
again.

Couldn't open file /ebal/Desktop/vagrant/base

Vagrantfile

Put the initial vagrantfile aside and create the below Vagrant configuration file:


Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|
  config.vm.provider "docker" do |d|
    d.image = "archlinux:sshd"
  end
end

That translate to :

Vagrant Provider: docker
Docker Image: archlinux:sshd

Basic commands

Run vagrant to create our virtual box:


#  vagrant up

Bringing machine 'default' up with 'docker' provider...
==> default: Creating the container...
    default:   Name: vagrant_default_1466368592
    default:  Image: archlinux:sshd
    default: Volume: /home/ebal/Desktop/vagrant:/vagrant
    default:
    default: Container created: 4cf4649b47615469
==> default: Starting container...
==> default: Provisioners will not be run since container doesn't support SSH.

ok, we havent yet configured vagrant to use ssh

but we have a running docker instance:



# vagrant status

Current machine states:

default                   running (docker)

The container is created and running. You can stop it using
`vagrant halt`, see logs with `vagrant docker-logs`, and
kill/destroy it with `vagrant destroy`.

that we can verify with docker ps:


#  docker ps -a

CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND               CREATED              STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
4cf4649b4761        archlinux:sshd      "/usr/sbin/sshd -D"   About a minute ago   Up About a minute   22/tcp              vagrant_default_1466368592

Destroy

We need to destroy this instance:



#  vagrant destroy

    default: Are you sure you want to destroy the 'default' VM? [y/N] y
==> default: Stopping container...
==> default: Deleting the container...

Vagrant ssh

We need to edit Vagrantfile to add ssh support to our docker :



# vim Vagrantfile

Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|

    config.vm.provider "docker" do |d|
        d.image = "archlinux:sshd"
        d.has_ssh = true
    end

end

and re-up our vagrant box:


#  vagrant up

Bringing machine 'default' up with 'docker' provider...
==> default: Creating the container...
    default:   Name: vagrant_default_1466368917
    default:  Image: archlinux:sshd
    default: Volume: /home/ebal/Desktop/vagrant:/vagrant
    default:   Port: 127.0.0.1:2222:22
    default:
    default: Container created: b4fce563a9f9042c
==> default: Starting container...
==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
    default: SSH address: 172.17.0.2:22
    default: SSH username: vagrant
    default: SSH auth method: private key
    default: Warning: Authentication failure. Retrying...
    default: Warning: Authentication failure. Retrying...

Vagrant will try to connect to our docker instance with the user: vagrant and a key.
But our docker image only have a root user and a root password !!


# vagrant status

Current machine states:

default                   running (docker)

The container is created and running. You can stop it using
`vagrant halt`, see logs with `vagrant docker-logs`, and
kill/destroy it with `vagrant destroy`.

#  vagrant destroy

    default: Are you sure you want to destroy the 'default' VM? [y/N] y
==> default: Stopping container...
==> default: Deleting the container...

Vagrant ssh - the Correct way !

We need to edit the Vagrantfile, properly:



# vim Vagrantfile

Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|

    config.ssh.username = 'root'
    config.ssh.password = 'roottoor'

    config.vm.provider "docker" do |d|
        d.image = "archlinux:sshd"
        d.has_ssh = true
    end

end


# vagrant up

Bringing machine 'default' up with 'docker' provider...
==> default: Creating the container...
    default:   Name: vagrant_default_1466369126
    default:  Image: archlinux:sshd
    default: Volume: /home/ebal/Desktop/vagrant:/vagrant
    default:   Port: 127.0.0.1:2222:22
    default:
    default: Container created: 7fef0efc8905bb3a
==> default: Starting container...
==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
    default: SSH address: 172.17.0.2:22
    default: SSH username: root
    default: SSH auth method: password
    default: Warning: Connection refused. Retrying...
    default:
    default: Inserting generated public key within guest...
    default: Removing insecure key from the guest if it's present...
    default: Key inserted! Disconnecting and reconnecting using new SSH key...
==> default: Machine booted and ready!

# vagrant status

Current machine states:

default                   running (docker)

The container is created and running. You can stop it using
`vagrant halt`, see logs with `vagrant docker-logs`, and
kill/destroy it with `vagrant destroy`.

# vagrant ssh-config

Host default
  HostName 172.17.0.2
  User root
  Port 22
  UserKnownHostsFile /dev/null
  StrictHostKeyChecking no
  PasswordAuthentication no
  IdentityFile /tmp/vagrant/.vagrant/machines/default/docker/private_key
  IdentitiesOnly yes
  LogLevel FATAL

# vagrant ssh

[root@7fef0efc8905 ~]# uptime
 20:45:48 up 11:33,  0 users,  load average: 0.53, 0.42, 0.28
[root@7fef0efc8905 ~]#
[root@7fef0efc8905 ~]#
[root@7fef0efc8905 ~]#
[root@7fef0efc8905 ~]# exit
logout
Connection to 172.17.0.2 closed.

Ansible

It is time to add ansible to the mix!

Ansible Playbook

We need to create a basic ansible playbook:



# cat playbook.yml 

---
- hosts: all

  vars:
      ansible_python_interpreter: "/usr/bin/env python2"

  gather_facts: no

  tasks:

    # Install package vim
    - pacman: name=vim state=present

The above playbook, is going to install vim, via pacman (archlinux PACkage MANager)!
Archlinux comes by default with python3 and with ansible_python_interpreter you are declaring to use python2!

Vagrantfile with Ansible



# cat Vagrantfile

Vagrant.configure("2") do |config|

    config.ssh.username = 'root'
    config.ssh.password = 'roottoor'

    config.vm.provider "docker" do |d|
        d.image = "archlinux:sshd"
        d.has_ssh = true
    end

    config.vm.provision "ansible" do |ansible|
        ansible.verbose = "v"
        ansible.playbook = "playbook.yml"
    end

end

Vagrant Docker Ansible



# vagrant up 

Bringing machine 'default' up with 'docker' provider...
==> default: Creating the container...
    default:   Name: vagrant_default_1466370194
    default:  Image: archlinux:sshd
    default: Volume: /home/ebal/Desktop/vagrant:/vagrant
    default:   Port: 127.0.0.1:2222:22
    default:
    default: Container created: 8909eee7007b8d4f
==> default: Starting container...
==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
    default: SSH address: 172.17.0.2:22
    default: SSH username: root
    default: SSH auth method: password
    default: Warning: Connection refused. Retrying...
    default:
    default: Inserting generated public key within guest...
    default: Removing insecure key from the guest if it's present...
    default: Key inserted! Disconnecting and reconnecting using new SSH key...
==> default: Machine booted and ready!

==> default: Running provisioner: ansible...
    default: Running ansible-playbook...
PYTHONUNBUFFERED=1 ANSIBLE_FORCE_COLOR=true ANSIBLE_HOST_KEY_CHECKING=false ANSIBLE_SSH_ARGS='-o UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null -o IdentitiesOnly=yes -o ControlMaster=auto -o ControlPersist=60s' ansible-playbook --connection=ssh --timeout=30 --limit="default" --inventory-file=/mnt/VB0250EAVER/home/ebal/Desktop/vagrant/.vagrant/provisioners/ansible/inventory -v playbook.yml
Using /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg as config file

PLAY [all] *********************************************************************

TASK [pacman] ******************************************************************
changed: [default] => {"changed": true, "msg": "installed 1 package(s). "}

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************
default                    : ok=1    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0   


# vagrant status

Current machine states:

default                   running (docker)

The container is created and running. You can stop it using
`vagrant halt`, see logs with `vagrant docker-logs`, and
kill/destroy it with `vagrant destroy`.



#  vagrant ssh 

[root@8909eee7007b ~]# vim --version
VIM - Vi IMproved 7.4 (2013 Aug 10, compiled Jun  9 2016 09:35:16)
Included patches: 1-1910
Compiled by Arch Linux

Vagrant Provisioning

The ansible-step is called: provisioning as you may already noticed.

If you make a few changes on this playbook, just type:


#  vagrant provision

and it will re-run the ansible part on this vagrant box !