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May
22
2018
Restrict email addresses for sending emails

Prologue

 

Maintaining a (public) service can be sometimes troublesome. In case of email service, often you need to suspend or restrict users for reasons like SPAM, SCAM or Phishing. You have to deal with inactive or even compromised accounts. Protecting your infrastructure is to protect your active users and the service. In this article I’ll propose a way to restrict messages to authorized addresses when sending an email and get a bounce message explaining why their email was not sent.

 

Reading Material

The reference documentation when having a Directory Service (LDAP) as our user backend and using Postfix:

 

ldap

LDAP

In this post, we will not get into openldap internals but as reference I’ll show an example user account (this is from my working test lab).

 

dn: uid=testuser2,ou=People,dc=example,dc=org
objectClass: top
objectClass: person
objectClass: organizationalPerson
objectClass: inetOrgPerson
objectClass: posixAccount
mail: testuser2@example.org
smtpd_sender_restrictions: true
cn: Evaggelos Balaskas
sn: Balaskas
givenName: Evaggelos
uidNumber: 99
gidNumber: 12
uid: testuser2
homeDirectory: /storage/vhome/%d/%n
userPassword: XXXXXXXXXX

as you can see, we have a custom ldap attribute:

smtpd_sender_restrictions: true

keep that in mind for now.

 

Postfix

The default value of smtpd_sender_restrictions is empty, that means by default the mail server has no sender restrictions. Depending on the policy we either can whitelist or blacklist in postfix restrictions, for the purpose of this blog post, we will only restrict (blacklist) specific user accounts.

 

ldap_smtpd_sender_restrictions

To do that, let’s create a new file that will talk to our openldap and ask for that specific ldap attribute.

ldap_smtpd_sender_restrictions.cf

server_host = ldap://localhost
server_port = 389
search_base = ou=People,dc=example,dc=org
query_filter = (&(smtpd_sender_restrictions=true)(mail=%s))
result_attribute = uid
result_filter = uid
result_format = REJECT This account is not allowed to send emails, plz talk to abuse@example.org
version = 3
timeout = 5

This is an anonymous bind, as we do not search for any special attribute like password.

 

Status Codes

The default status code will be: 554 5.7.1
Take a look here for more info: RFC 3463 - Enhanced Mail System Status Codes

 

Test it

# postmap -q testuser2@example.org ldap:/etc/postfix/ldap_smtpd_sender_restrictions.cf
REJECT This account is not allowed to send emails, plz talk to abuse@example.org

Add -v to extent verbosity

# postmap -v -q testuser2@example.org ldap:/etc/postfix/ldap_smtpd_sender_restrictions.cf

 

Possible Errors

postmap: fatal: unsupported dictionary type: ldap

Check your postfix setup with postconf -m . The result should be something like this:

btree
cidr
environ
fail
hash
internal
ldap
memcache
nis
proxy
regexp
socketmap
static
tcp
texthash
unix

If not, you need to setup postfix to support the ldap dictionary type.

 

smtpd_sender_restrictions

Modify the main.cf to add the ldap_smtpd_sender_restrictions.cf

# applied in the context of the MAIL FROM
smtpd_sender_restrictions =
        check_sender_access ldap:/etc/postfix/ldap_smtpd_sender_restrictions.cf

and reload postfix

# postfix reload

If you keep logs, tail them to see any errors.

 

Thunderbird

smtpd_sender_restrictions

 

Logs

May 19 13:20:26 centos6 postfix/smtpd[20905]:
NOQUEUE: reject: RCPT from XXXXXXXX[XXXXXXXX]: 554 5.7.1 <testuser2@example.org>:
Sender address rejected: This account is not allowed to send emails, plz talk to abuse@example.org;
from=<testuser2@example.org> to=<postmaster@example.org> proto=ESMTP helo=<[192.168.0.13]>
Tag(s): postfix, ldap
Jun
29
2017
STARTTLS with CRAM-MD5 on dovecot using LDAP

Prologue

I should have written this post like a decade ago, but laziness got the better of me.

I use TLS with IMAP and SMTP mail server. That means I encrypt the connection by protocol against the mail server and not by port (ssl Vs tls). Although I do not accept any authentication before STARTTLS command is being provided (that means no cleartext passwords in authentication), I was leaving the PLAIN TEXT authentication mechanism in the configuration. That’s not an actual problem unless you are already on the server and you are trying to connect on localhost but I can do better.

LDAP

I use OpenLDAP as my backend authentication database. Before all, the ldap attribute password must be changed from cleartext to CRAM-MD5

Typing the doveadm command from dovecot with the password method:

# doveadm pw

Enter new password:    test
Retype new password:   test
{CRAM-MD5}e02d374fde0dc75a17a557039a3a5338c7743304777dccd376f332bee68d2cf6

will return the CRAM-MD5 hash of our password (test)

Then we need to edit our DN (distinguished name) with ldapvi:

From:

uid=USERNAME,ou=People,dc=example,dc=org
userPassword: test

To:

uid=USERNAME,ou=People,dc=example,dc=org
userPassword: {CRAM-MD5}e02d374fde0dc75a17a557039a3a5338c7743304777dccd376f332bee68d2cf6

Dovecot

Dovecot is not only the imap server but also the “Simple Authentication and Security Layer” aka SASL service. That means that imap & smtp are speaking with dovecot for authentication and dovecot uses ldap as the backend. To change AUTH=PLAIN to cram-md5 we need to do the below change:

file: 10-auth.conf

From:

auth_mechanisms = plain

To:

auth_mechanisms = cram-md5

Before restarting dovecot, we need to make one more change. This step took me a couple hours to figure it out! On our dovecot-ldap.conf.ext configuration file, we need to tell dovecot NOT to bind to ldap for authentication but let dovecot to handle the authentication process itself:

From:

# Enable Authentication Binds
# auth_bind = yes

To:

# Enable Authentication Binds
auth_bind = no

To guarantee that the entire connection is protected by TLS encryption, change in 10-ssl.conf the below setting:

From:

ssl = yes

To:

ssl = required

SSL/TLS is always required, even if non-plaintext authentication mechanisms are used. Any attempt to authenticate before SSL/TLS is enabled will cause an authentication failure.

After that, restart your dovecot instance.

Testing

# telnet example.org imap

Trying 172.12.13.14 ...
Connected to example.org.
Escape character is '^]'.
* OK [CAPABILITY IMAP4rev1 LITERAL+ SASL-IR LOGIN-REFERRALS ID ENABLE IDLE STARTTLS AUTH=CRAM-MD5] Dovecot ready.

1 LOGIN USERNAME@example.org test

1 NO [ALERT] Unsupported authentication mechanism.
^]
telnet> clo

That meas no cleartext authentication is permitted

MUA

Now the hard part, the mail clients:

RainLoop

My default webmail client since v1.10.1.123 supports CRAM-MD5
To verify that, open your application.ini file under your data folder and search for something like that:

    imap_use_auth_plain = On
    imap_use_auth_cram_md5 = On
    smtp_use_auth_plain = On
    smtp_use_auth_cram_md5 = On

as a bonus, rainloop supports STARTTLS and authentication for imap & smtp, even when talking to 127.0.0.1

Thunderbird

thunderbird_cram_md5.png

K9

k9.png

Jan
21
2015
Web Roles using Ldap attributes

A few days ago, I wrote a simple wiki page on how to Authenticate to a web site using LDAP backend.

There is a cool (and very simple way) to use Web Roles by matching your user’s ldap attributes to your web app.

A RFC 2255 from 1997 exists on how to implement (and use) the LDAP URL Format. The authldapurl syntax from mod_authnz_ldap explains that the “attribute” field can be used with comma to separate different attributes. Every attribute would be passed to your webserver as an AUTHENTICATED_attribute variable.

In my example:



AuthLDAPURL "ldap://ldap.domain.org/ou=web,dc=domain,dc=org?uid,MyWebAccess?one?(WebAccess=MyWebApp_Level_*)"

returns:


AUTHENTICATE_MYWEBACCESS
    MyWebApp_Level_1 
AUTHENTICATE_UID
    myusername 
Tag(s): ldap, apache